Author Sahai, Yogeshwar
Title Tundish Technology For Clean Steel Production
Imprint Singapore : World Scientific Publishing Company, 2007
©2007
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (329 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Intro -- Contents -- Preface -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 Ingot and Continuous Casting of Steel -- 1.2 The Role of Tundish in the Continuous Casting Process -- 1.3 The Need for Clean Steel -- 1.4 Concluding Remarks -- References -- 2. Non-Metallic Inclusions -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Origin of Oxide Inclusions -- 2.2.1 Exogenous inclusions -- 2.2.1.1 Definition of macro inclusions -- 2.2.1.2 Origins of exogenous macro inclusions -- 2.2.1.3 Constitution of exogenous inclusions -- 2.2.2 Indigenous inclusions -- 2.2.2.1 Thermodynamics of deoxidation reaction -- 2.2.2.2 Sequence of oxide inclusion formation -- 2.2.2.3 Primary, secondary, and tertiary inclusions -- 2.2.2.4 Oxygen content of deoxidized steel -- 2.2.2.5 The deoxidation process -- 2.3 Sizes and Shapes of Inclusions -- 2.3.1 Size distribution of inclusions -- 2.3.2 The shape of inclusions -- 2.3.2.1 Relative deformability of inclusions during hot rolling -- 2.3.2.2 Classification of inclusions by shape after deformation of steel matrix -- 2.4 Influence of Inclusions on Steel Properties -- 2.5 Measures to Reduce Inclusions -- 2.5.1 Maximizing inclusion removal in ladle refining -- 2.5.2 Minimizing pickup of macro inclusions -- 2.5.3 Removal of macro inclusions during melt transport in tundish -- 2.5.3.1 The dominant mechanism of inclusion removal -- 2.5.3.2 Characteristics and modeling of the formation and removal of Al2O3 clusters -- 2.5.3.3 Influence of flow and temperature of melt on the removal of alumina clusters -- 2.5.4 Tundish design and inclusion removal -- 2.5.4.1 Design criteria for inclusion removal -- 2.5.4.2 Effect of dimensions and profile of the tundish on inclusion removal -- 2.5.5 Remarks on modeling -- References -- 3. Review of Fluid Flow and Turbulence -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Fluid Flow Regimes -- 3.3 Newton's Law of Viscosity -- 3.3.1 Viscosity
3.4 Dimensionality of Flow -- 3.5 Modes of Momentum Transport -- 3.5.1 Viscous or diffusive momentum transport -- 3.5.2 Convective momentum transport -- 3.6 Equations of Continuity and Motion -- 3.7 Stokes' Law -- 3.8 Turbulent Flow -- 3.8.1 The eddy size spectrum -- 3.8.2 Prandtl's mixing length and effective viscosity -- 3.8.3 Turbulent shear stress -- 3.9 Turbulent Equations of Continuity and Motion -- 3.10 Heat and Mass Transfer -- 3.11 Turbulence Models -- 3.12 Concluding Remarks -- References and Further Reading -- 4. Fluid Flow Characterization -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Stimulus-Response Techniques -- 4.2.1 Step input and F-curve -- 4.2.2 Pulse input and C-curve -- 4.3 Characterization of Flow Systems -- 4.3.1 Plug flow -- 4.3.2 Well-mixed flow -- 4.4 Characterization of Actual Systems -- 4.4.1 Longitudinal dispersion model -- 4.4.1.1 Step input and F-curve -- 4.4.1.2 Pulse input and C-curve -- 4.4.1.3 Closed vessel -- 4.4.1.4 Open vessel -- 4.4.1.5 Dispersion model for a small extent of dispersion (for a closed system) -- 4.4.1.6 Mean and variance of the residence time distribution -- 4.4.2 Tanks-in-series model -- 4.4.3 Combined or mixed models -- 4.4.3.1 Active region -- 4.4.3.2 Dead region -- 4.4.3.3 Application of a combined model to melt flow in tundish -- 4.4.3.4 An example of tundish melt flow characterization -- 4.5 Concluding Remarks -- References -- 5. Modeling of Melt Flow -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Physical Modeling -- 5.2.1 States of similarity -- 5.2.1.1 Geometric similarity -- 5.2.1.2 Kinematic similarity -- 5.2.1.3 Dynamic similarity -- 5.2.1.4 Thermal similarity -- 5.2.2 Similarity criteria -- 5.2.3 Isothermal system -- 5.2.4 Non-isothermal system -- 5.2.5 Inclusion removal modeling -- 5.2.5.1 Inclusion flotation -- 5.2.6 Water modeling procedure -- 5.2.7 Effect of tracer density on melt flow characterization
5.3 Mathematical Modeling -- 5.3.1 Turbulent flow field and heat transfer -- 5.3.2 Boundary conditions and assumptions -- 5.3.3 Numerical solution procedure -- 5.3.4 Tracer dispersion -- 5.3.5 Inclusion transport -- 5.3.6 Commercial software codes -- 5.4 Case Studies -- 5.4.1 Case study # 1 -- 5.4.2 Case study # 2 -- 5.4.3 Case study # 3 -- 5.5 Concluding Remarks -- References -- 6. Tundish Operation -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Reoxidation During Ladle to Tundish Melt Transfer -- 6.3 Slag Entrainment and Sensing Technologies -- 6.4 The Effect of Tundish Size -- 6.5 The Effect of Flow Control Devices -- 6.5.1 Large tundish without flow modifiers -- 6.6 Gas Injection in Tundishes -- 6.7 Role of Tundish Flux -- 6.7.1 Basicity of slag -- 6.7.2 Alumina dissolution rate -- 6.7.3 Slag viscosity -- 6.7.4 Slag composition -- 6.7.5 Metallic Al in tundish fluxes -- 6.7.6 Tundish operation without tundish fluxes -- 6.8 Calcium Addition -- 6.9 Sequential Casting of Different Grades -- 6.9.1 Use of grade separators and strand links -- 6.9.2 Casting of different grades using the same tundish -- 6.10 Tundish Refractory -- 6.11 Recycling of a Hot Tundish -- 6.11.1 Slag crystallization and build-up -- 6.11.2 Temperature drop of tundish -- 6.11.3 Number of heats and refractory cost -- 6.12 Starting and Ending a Sequence -- 6.12.1 Starting a sequence -- 6.12.2 Ending a sequence -- 6.13 Tundish to Mold Melt Delivery and Nozzle Clogging -- 6.13.1 Melt delivery system from the tundish to the mold -- 6.13.2 Clogging of the tundish nozzle, slide plate hole, and the SEN -- 6.14 Concluding Remarks -- References -- 7. Melt Temperature Control -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Melt Temperature Variation -- 7.3 Temperature Measurement Devices -- 7.4 The Need for Superheat Control -- 7.5 External Heating (Plasma Systems) -- 7.5.1 DC arc plasma system -- 7.5.2 Mobile plasma arc system
7.5.2.1 Stable and mobile arc -- 7.5.2.2 Mobile plasma arc generation -- 7.5.3 AC arc plasma system -- 7.5.3.1 Arc characteristics -- 7.5.3.2 Effect of gas composition and flow rate -- 7.5.3.3 Cold- and hot-run trials -- 7.5.3.4 Heating efficiency and temperature control -- 7.6 External Heating (Induction Systems) -- 7.6.1 Heating efficiency and temperature control -- 7.7 External Cooling -- 7.8 Concluding Remarks -- References -- 8. Recent, Emerging, and Novel Technologies -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Advances of the H-Shaped Tundish -- 8.3 The Centrifugal Flow Tundish (CF Tundish) -- 8.4 Argon Bubbling in a Tundish -- 8.5 Electromagnetic Control of Melt Flow -- 8.6 Tundish Heaters -- 8.7 Hot Cycling with a Single Tundish Reheated Under Inert Atmosphere -- 8.8 Improved Argon Shrouding of the Melt Stream from the Ladle to the Tundish -- 8.9 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Subject Index
Key Features:Comprehensive presentation of all topics related to tundish technology, including the fundamental aspects and theoryWritten by internationally known experts in the fieldIncludes discussion of future and emerging technologiesSuitable for students, yet a good resource for researchers and practicing engineersA necessary reference book for people interested in clean steel production
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Sahai, Yogeshwar Tundish Technology For Clean Steel Production Singapore : World Scientific Publishing Company,c2007 9789812706218
Subject Steel -- Metallurgy.;Steel founding.;Continuous casting.;Steel -- Inclusions
Electronic books
Alt Author Emi, Toshihiko