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082 0  551.51 
100 1  Huba, J. D 
245 10 Modeling the Ionosphere-Thermosphere 
250    1st ed 
264  1 Washington :|bAmerican Geophysical Union,|c2014 
264  4 |c©2013 
300    1 online resource (350 pages) 
336    text|btxt|2rdacontent 
337    computer|bc|2rdamedia 
338    online resource|bcr|2rdacarrier 
490 1  Geophysical Monograph Ser. ;|vv.201 
505 0  Intro -- Modeling the Ionosphere- Thermosphere System -- 
       Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- Introduction -- 
       Section I: Physical Processes -- Ionosphere-Thermosphere 
       Physics: Current Status and Problems -- 1.INTRODUCTION -- 
       2.MISSINGPHYSICSINGLOBALPHYSICS-BASEDIONOSPHERE-
       THERMOSPHEREMODELS -- 3.SUMMARY -- REFERENCES -- Physical 
       Characteristics and Modeling of Earth's Thermosphere -- 
       1.INTRODUCTION -- 2.THE GAS LAW AND HYDROSTATIC BALANCE --
       3. CONTINUITY EQUATION -- 4. LAGRANGIAN VERSUS EULERIAN 
       FRAMES OF REFERENCE -- 5. HORIZONTALLY STRATIFIED FLUID 
       AND OTHER COMMON ASSUMPTION -- 6. CORIOLIS EFFECT -- 7. 
       VISCOUS DRAG -- 8. ION DRAG -- 9. MOMENTUM EQUATION -- 10.
       ENERGY EQUATIONS -- 11. NEUTRAL COMPOSITION -- 12. GLOBAL 
       WIND, TEMPERATURE, DENSITY, AND COMPOSITION STRUCTURE -- 
       13. THERMAL EXPANSION -- 14. NEUTRAL COMPOSITION BULGE -- 
       15. WINDS AND NONLINEARITIES AT HIGH LATITUDE -- 16. 
       CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- Solar Cycle Changes in the 
       Photochemistry of the Ionosphere and Thermosphere -- 1. 
       INTRODUCTION -- 2. RESULTS -- 3. CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES
       -- Energetics and Composition in the Thermosphere -- 1. 
       INTRODUCTION -- 2. DATA AND MODELS THAT HAVE INCREASED OUR
       UNDERSTANDING OF -- 3. THE CONTINUITY EQUATION, THE ENERGY
       EQUATION, AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS -- 4. THE CAUSES OF 
       TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS IN THE LOW AND MIDDLE LATITUDES OF 
       THE UPPER THERMOSPHERE DURING GEOMAGNETIC STORMS -- 5. 
       SUMMARY -- REFERENCES -- Section II: Numerical Methods -- 
       Numerical Methods in Modeling the Ionosphere -- 1. 
       INTRODUCTION -- 2. GENERAL EQUATIONS -- 3. FIELD-ALIGNED 
       DYNAMICS -- 4. CROSS-FIELD DYNAMICS -- 5. SUMMARY -- 
       REFERENCES -- Ionospheric Electrodynamics Modeling -- 1. 
       INTRODUCTION -- 2. EQUATIONS OF IONOSPHERIC 
       ELECTRODYNAMICS -- 3. MODELING IONOSPHEREMAGNETOSPHERE 
       COUPLING -- 4. MODELING IONOSPHERIC CONDUCTIVITIES -- 5. 
       MODELING THERMOSPHERIC WINDS 
505 8  6. PLASMA GRAVITY AND PRESSUREGRADIENTCURRENTS -- 6. 
       PLASMA GRAVITY AND PRESSUREGRADIENTCURRENTS -- 7. SOLVING 
       FOR THE ELECTRIC POTENTIAL -- 8. IONOSPHERIC CURRENT 
       SYSTEM AND GEOMAGNETIC PERTURBATIONS -- 9. FUTURE 
       DIRECTIONS -- REFERENCES -- Section III: IT Models -- The 
       NCAR TIE-GCM: A Community Model of the Coupled 
       Thermosphere/Ionosphere System -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. 
       MODEL DEVELOPMENT HISTORY -- 3. MODEL DESCRIPTION -- 4. 
       SOME MODEL VALIDATION EXAMPLES -- 5. FUTURE IMPROVEMENT 
       AND DEVELOPMENT PLANS -- REFERENCES -- The Global 
       Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model and the Nonhydrostatics 
       Processes -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. GLOBAL IONOSPHERE-
       THERMOSPHERE MODEL -- 3. NONHYDROSTATIC PROCESSES -- 4. 
       CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION -- APPENDIX A: EQUATIONS IN GITM
       MODEL -- REFERENCES -- Traveling Atmospheric Disturbance 
       and Gravity Wave Coupling in the Thermosphere -- 1. 
       INTRODUCTION -- 2. GLOBAL THERMOSPHERE-IONOSPHERE MODEL --
       3. SIMULATION SETUP -- 4. SIMULATION RESULTS -- 5. SUMMARY
       -- REFERENCES -- Air Force Low-Latitude Ionospheric Model 
       in Support of the C/NOFS Mission -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. 
       MODEL DESCRIPTION AND OUTPUT -- 3. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF 
       LOW-LATITUDE IONOSPHERIC DENSITIES -- 4. SUMMARY AND 
       DISCUSSION -- REFERENCES -- Long-Term Simulations of the 
       Ionosphere Using SAMI3 -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. MODEL 
       DESCRIPTION -- 3. SAMI3 COMPARISONS WITH IGS TEC DURING 
       THE WHOLE HELIOSPHERE INTERVAL 2008 -- 4. MODELING 
       VERTICAL DRIFTS -- 5. MODELING THE DESCENDING PHASE OF 
       SOLAR CYCLE 23 (2002-2008) -- 6. SUMMARY OF RESULTS -- 
       REFERENCES -- Section IV: Validation of IT Models -- 
       Comparative Studies of Theoretical Models in the 
       Equatorial Ionosphere -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. TRANSPORT 
       PROCESSES IN THE IONOSPHERE -- 3. PARTICIPATING MODELS IN 
       EQUATORIAL-PRIMO -- 4. MODEL COMPARISONS IN AMERICAN 
       SECTOR (75°W) -- 5. SOURCES OF MODEL DISCREPANCIES 
505 8  6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS -- REFERENCES -- 
       Systematic Evaluation of Ionosphere/Thermosphere (IT) 
       Models: CEDAR Electrodynamics  Thermosphere Ionosphere 
       (ETI) Challenge (2009-2010) -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. 
       OBSERVATIONAL DATA -- 3. MODELS -- 4. METRICS -- 5. 
       RESULTS -- 6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- 
       Section V: IT Coupling: Above and Below -- Aspect of 
       Coupling Processes in the Ionosphere and Thermosphere -- 
       1. ION-ELECTRON COLLISIONS -- 2. ION ELECTRON COLLISIONS -
       - 3. ION-NEUTRAL COLLISIONS IN THE UPPER THERMOSPHERE -- 
       4. ION-NEUTRAL COLLISIONS IN THE LOWER THERMOSPHERE -- 5. 
       SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- Use of NOGAPS-
       ALPHA as a Bottom Boundary for the NCAR/TIEGCM -- 1. 
       INTRODUCTION -- 2. MODEL DESCRIPTIONS -- 3. MODEL RESULTS 
       -- 4. CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- WACCM-X Simulation of 
       Tidal and Planetary Wave Variability in the Upper 
       Atmosphere -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. THE THERMOSPHERE 
       EXTENSION OF THE WHOLE ATMOSPHERE COMMUNITY CLIMATE MODEL 
       (WACCM-X) -- 3. MODEL RESULTS -- 4. DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY
       -- REFERENCES -- Inductive-Dynamic Coupling of the 
       Ionosphere With the Thermosphere and the Magnetosphere -- 
       1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. INDUCTIVE-DYNAMIC COUPLING VERSUS 
       ELECTROSTATIC COUPLING -- 3. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION --
       REFERENCES -- Section VI: Equatorial Ionospheric Processes
       -- Ionospheric Irregularities: Frontiers -- 1. 
       INTRODUCTION -- 2. FUNDAMENTALS -- 3. E REGION 
       IRREGULARITIES -- 4. F REGION IRREGULARITIES -- 5. 
       COLLISIONAL DRIFT WAVE INSTABILITIES -- 6. SUMMARY AND 
       CONCLUSIONS -- APPENDIX B: BOURRET'S INTEGRAL EQUATION -- 
       REFERENCES -- Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of 
       Equatorial Spread F: Results and Diagnostics in  the 
       Peruvian Sector -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. NUMERICAL 
       SIMULATIONS -- 3. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSIONS -- REFERENCES --
       Density and Temperature Structure of Equatorial Spread F 
       Plumes 
505 8  1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. SAMI3 SIMULATIONS -- 3. IONIZATION 
       CRESTS WITHIN AN ESF PLUME -- 4. THERMODYNAMICS OF AN ESF 
       PLUME -- 5. TIME EVOLUTION OF AN ESF PLUME -- 6. 
       DISCUSSION -- REFERENCES -- Low-Latitude Ionosphere and 
       Thermosphere: Decadal Observations From the CHAMP Mission 
       -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. CHAMP MISSION AND DATA -- 3. 
       OBSERVATIONS OF THE IONOSPHERE -- 4. OBSERVATIONS OF THE 
       THERMOSPHERE -- 5. CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK -- REFERENCES -
       - Section VII: Data Assimilation -- Upper Atmosphere Data 
       Assimilation With  an Ensemble Kalman Filter -- 1. 
       INTRODUCTION -- 2. ENSEMBLE KALMAN FILTER -- 3. EFFECTS OF
       SELF-CONSISTENT TREATMENT OF THE THERMOSPHERE AND 
       IONOSPHERE -- 4. GEOPHYSICAL INFORMATION CONTENT OF 
       DIFFERENT OBSERVATIONS -- 5. ESTIMATION OF MODEL 
       PARAMETERS -- 6. MODEL ERROR ISSUES -- 7. SUMMARY -- 
       REFERENCES -- Scientific Investigation Using IDA4D and 
       EMPIRE -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. IDA4D -- 3. EMPIRE -- 4. 
       IDA4D AND EMPIRE SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS -- 5. FUTURE 
       RESEARCH: A NEW PLASMASPHEREIONOSPHERE DATA ASSIMILATION 
       MODEL -- 6. SUMMARY -- REFERENCES -- Section VIII: 
       Applications -- Customers and Requirements for Ionosphere 
       Products and Services -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. SPACE 
       WEATHER IMPACTS -- 3. SYSTEM IMPACTS AND CUSTOMERS -- 4. 
       OPERATIONAL MODELS -- 5. THE SPACE WEATHER PREDICTION 
       TESTBED -- 6. CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- Model-Based 
       Inversion of Auroral Processes -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. 
       OVERVIEW OF THE FORWARD PROBLEM -- 3. MATHEMATICAL 
       DESCRIPTION OF THE FORWARD PROBLEM -- 4. CHARACTERISTIC 
       RESPONSES -- 5. FREDHOLM FORMULATION -- 6. TIME HISTORY --
       7. INVERSION APPROACHES -- 8. VALIDATION -- 9. FUTURE 
       DIRECTIONS: ACCESSING HIDDEN STATES OF THE I-T SYSTEM -- 
       REFERENCES -- AGU Category Index -- Index 
520    Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the
       Geophysical Monograph Series 
588    Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other
       sources 
590    Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest 
       Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access 
       may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated 
       libraries 
650  0 Ionosphere -- Mathematical models.;Thermosphere -- 
       Mathematical models.;Atmospheric thermodynamics.;Dynamic 
       meteorology 
655  4 Electronic books 
700 1  Khazanov, G. V 
700 1  Schunk, Robert W 
776 08 |iPrint version:|aHuba, J. D.|tModeling the Ionosphere-
       Thermosphere|dWashington : American Geophysical Union,
       c2014|z9780875904917 
830  0 Geophysical Monograph Ser 
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