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Author Field, Fredric
Title Bilingualism in the USA : The case of the Chicano-Latino community
Imprint Amsterda : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011
©2011
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (338 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Bilingualism in the USA -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC data -- Table of contents -- Acknowledgments -- List of figures -- List of tables -- Preface -- 1. Introduction: Bilingualism as a worldwide phenomenon -- 1. The roots of multilingualism -- 2. Language contact -- 3. Bilingualism in the U.S.: A first look -- 4. Languages of the U.S. -- 5. The term Hispanic -- 6. The order of this book -- Key terms -- Summary -- Activities - topics for discussion -- Practice essay questions -- 2. Bilingual acquisition and the bilingual individual -- 1. Language development -- 1.1 Native language acquisition -- 1.2 Age and bilingual language acquisition -- 1.3 NLA versus SLA -- 2. Types of bilingualism -- 2.1 Sequential and simultaneous bilingual acquisition -- 2.2 Additive versus subtractive bilingualism -- 2.3 Individual bilingualism - two languages, one speaker -- 2.4 One system or two -- 3. Types of bilingual individuals -- 4. Difficulties in measuring proficiency -- 4.1 The nature of language -- 4.2 Language testing in childhood -- 4.3 Testing and placement -- 5. Types of bilingual families -- 5.1 Types 1 and 2 -- 5.2 Types 3 and 4 -- 5.3 Type 5: Nonnative parents -- 5.4 Type 6: Mixed languages -- 5.5 Type 7: Post-shift with rememberers -- 6. Motivation and the three generation rule -- Key terms -- Summary -- Activities - topics for discussion -- Practice essay questions -- 3. Bilingual phenomena in the U.S. -- 1. Language variation: Dialects and registers -- 1.1 Factors that determine speech -- 1.2 Registers of speech -- 2. Bilingual language contact: Social and linguistic change -- 3. Maintenance, shift, diglossia, and convergence -- 4. Linguistic borrowing -- 4.1 Direction of borrowing -- 4.2 Social processes -- 5. Code-switching -- 5.1 Types of CS -- 5.2 Social motivations for CS -- 5.3 Theoretical models for CS -- 5.4 Borrowing and CS compared
6. Language modes -- Key terms -- Summary -- Activities - topics for discussion -- Practice essay questions -- 4. Chicano English (ChE) -- 1. Sharing features: Vernaculars, social dialects and standards -- 1.1 Social dialects - the story of Black English -- 1.2 From BE to ChE -- 2. Likely origins of ChE -- 2.1 The influence of Spanish on ChE -- 2.2 Substrate and adstrate -- 2.3 Contact with AAVE -- 3. Description of ChE: Vocabulary and pronunciation -- 3.1 The lexicon -- 3.2 Pronunciation -- 4. Description of ChE: Word formation and word order -- 4.1 Word formation - inflectional morphology -- 4.2 Word order - syntax -- 5. Standard Chicano English -- Key terms -- Summary -- Activities - topics for discussion -- Practice essay questions -- 5. American attitudes to bilingualism -- 1. Ambivalent attitudes towards bilingualism -- 1.1 Early fears of certain "brands" of bilingualism -- 1.2 Historical links to nationality and race -- 2. Three factors that have shaped attitudes -- 3. From the founders to the present: Stages in the development of American attitudes -- 3.1 Colonial days into the 1800s -- 3.2 The end of the 19th Century and beginning of the 20th -- 3.3 The first half of the 20th Century: The Great Wars -- 3.4 From the second half of the 20th into the 21st Century -- 4. Reactions to the use of Spanish in the American Southwest -- 4.1 A revolving door: Immigration, repatriation, illegal aliens, and braceros -- 4.2 Schools and segregation -- 4.3 The suppression of Spanish -- 6. Bilingualism and education -- 1. The second half of the 20th Century: Waves of legislation -- 1.1 The Civil Rights Movement and the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 -- 1.2 The Eighties and beyond -- 2. What's in a name? -- 3. Poor academic performance: The achievement gap -- 3.1 Fixing the blame -- 3.2 Strong versus weak bilingual programs
4. Different types of bilingual programs -- 4.1 English-only programs -- 4.2 Weak forms of bilingual education -- 4.3 Strong forms of bilingual education -- 4.4 A special case: Coral Way -- 5. Some preliminary conclusions -- Key terms -- Summary -- Activities - topics for discussion -- Practice essay questions -- 7. Literacy, biliteracy, and the cognitive effects of schooling -- 1. Literacy: Facts and myths -- 1.1 Literacy counts, but only in English -- 1.2 Standardization -- 2. Definitions of literacy -- 3. Biliteracy -- 4. The impact of pre-literacy training -- 5. Different kinds of language (codes) -- 5.1 Thresholds Theory -- 5.2 BICS and CALP -- 5.3 Language skills: Passive versus active knowledge -- 6. Contrastive rhetoric: Developments and criticisms -- 6.1 Linguistic relativity and the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis -- 6.2 Contrasting the rhetorical patterns of Spanish and English -- Key terms -- Summary -- Activities - topics for discussion -- Practice essay questions -- 8. The current state of the Chicano-Latino community -- 1. Student demographics: Language issues -- 1.1 Numbers in terms of English proficiency -- 1.2 Numbers based on ethnicity -- 1.3 Age and grade levels with respect to language proficiency -- 2. The California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) -- 2.1 Testing results for NNSs -- 2.2 Discussion of CAHSEE results -- 3. The double whammy -- 3.1 The effects of Spanish on the Chicano-Latino writer -- 3.2 The power of pop culture -- 4. School reform: Reinvent the wheel? -- 5. Conclusions -- 6. Final comments -- Key terms -- Summary -- Activities - topics for discussion -- Practice essay questions -- References -- Index
This text provides an overview of bi- and multilingualism as a worldwide phenomenon. It features comprehensive discussions of many of the linguistic, social, political, and educational issues found in an increasingly multilingual nation and world. To this end, the book takes the Chicano-Latino community of Southern California, where Spanish-English bilingualism has over a century and a half of history, and presents a detailed case study, thereby situating the community in a much broader social context. Spanish is the second most-widely spoken language in the U.S. after English, yet, for the most part, its speakers form a language minority that essentially lacks the social, political, and educational support necessary to derive the many cognitive, socioeconomic, and educational benefits that proficient bilingualism can provide. The issues facing Spanish-English bilinguals in the Los Angeles area are relevant to nearly every bi- and multilingual community irrespective of nation, language, and/or ethnicity
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Field, Fredric Bilingualism in the USA : The case of the Chicano-Latino community Amsterda : John Benjamins Publishing Company,c2011 9789027241832
Subject Education, Bilingual -- United States.;Bilingualism -- United States.;Hispanic Americans -- Education.;Mexican Americans -- Education.;Language acquisition
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