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Author Watters, David E
Title A Grammar of Kham
Imprint Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2002
©2002
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (505 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Series Cambridge Grammatical Descriptions
Cambridge Grammatical Descriptions
Note Cover -- Half-title -- Series-title -- Title -- Copyright -- Dedication -- Contents -- Tables -- Figures -- Maps -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Abbreviations -- 1 The people and their language -- 1.1 Language typology -- 1.1.1 Tonal patterns -- 1.1.2 Word classes -- i. Morphology -- ii. Case marking alignment -- 1.1.3 Constituent order -- 1.1.4 Grammatical roles -- 1.1.5 Nominalization -- 1.1.6 Clause chains -- 1.1.7 Evidentials -- 1.2 Villages and grazing lands -- 1.3 Shamanism and origins -- 1.4 Language name -- 1.4.1 Early records of Kham as a language name -- 1.4.2 Early reference to Kham speaking peoples -- 1.5 Population -- 1.6 Kham and its dialects -- 1.6.1 Intelligibility levels -- 1.6.2 Incompatibility of surface morphemes -- 1.7 The place of Kham in Tibeto-Burman -- 2 Segmental phonology -- 2.1 Consonants -- 2.1.1 Stop consonants -- 2.1.2 Stop variants -- 2.1.3 Fricatives and affricates (sibilants) -- 2.1.4 Nasals -- 2.1.5 Approximants -- i. Liquids -- ii. Glides -- 2.1.6 Aspiration -- 2.2 Vowels -- 2.2.1 Contrastive length -- i. Length and stress in polysyllabic morphemes -- ii. Length in monosyllabic words -- 2.2.2 Nasalization -- 2.2.3 Diphthongs -- 2.2.4 The vowels ü and ö -- 2.2.5 The vowel /i/ -- 2.2.6 Diphthongs ending in /-i/ -- 2.2.7 Vowel variants -- 2.2.8 Vowel height harmony -- 2.3 Voice register -- 2.4 Syllables and syllabification -- 2.4.1 Syllable weight -- 2.4.2 Complex onsets -- 2.4.3 Resyllabification -- 3 Tonology -- 3.1 The basic system -- 3.1.1 An overview of stem pitches -- i. Monosyllabic root morphemes -- ii. Bisyllabic root morphemes -- iii. Trisyllabic root morphemes -- 3.1.2 Suffix pitches -- i. T-1 downstep pitch -- ii. T-2 and lack of downstep -- 3.1.3 Stems with morphological suffixes -- i. Inherent T-1 suffixes -- ii. T-1 suffixes on T-2 stems, and T-2 suffixes on T-1 stems
iii. T-2 stems with T-2 suffixes -- 3.2 Tonal compounding -- 3.2.1 Nominal compounds -- i. Compounds without a suffix -- ii. Compounds with a suffix -- 3.2.2 Verbal compounds -- 3.2.3 Nominalizations -- i. T-1 nominalizations -- ii. T-2 nominalizations -- 3.3 Orthography -- 4 Nouns and noun morphology -- 4.1 Noun classes -- 4.1.1 Gender -- 4.1.2 Classifiers -- 4.2 Grammatical number -- 4.2.1 Plurals and sets -- 4.2.2 Plurals and mass nouns -- 4.3 Possession -- 4.3.1 Inalienable possession and basic level categories -- 4.3.2 Possession and kinship -- 4.4 Locative suffixes -- 4.4.1 The locative and adessive -- 4.4.2 The inessive -- 4.4.3 The superessive -- 4.4.4 The allative -- 4.4.5 The ablative -- 4.4.6 The elative and delative -- 4.4.7 Complex locatives - the lative, orientative, and cisative -- 4.4.8 Locative suffixes and animate nouns -- 4.5 Grammatical case marking -- 4.5.1 The genitive -- i. Modification -- ii. Iteration -- iii. Possession -- 4.5.2 The instrumental -- 4.5.3 The comitative and associative -- 4.5.4 The ergative -- 4.5.5 The nominative -- 4.5.6 The objective case -- 4.5.7 Tripartite marking -- 4.6 Position classes -- 4.7 Nominal suffixes in other Kham dialects -- 4.8 Derivational processes on nouns -- 4.8.1 Compound nouns -- 4.8.2 The formation of supergenerics -- i. Supergenerics and plurality -- ii. Supergenerics and possession -- 4.8.3 Verbalizing derivations -- i. Descriptive verbs from nouns -- ii. Light verb constructions -- 5 Verbs and verb morphology -- 5.1 The basic transitive-intransitive distinction -- 5.1.1 Unmarked persons -- i. Third singular in declaratives -- ii. Second singular in imperatives -- 5.1.2 Other unmarked categories -- i. The imperfective -- ii. Non-immediate imperative -- 5.1.3 Summary of unmarked categories -- 5.2 Person and number categories -- 5.2.1 Person and number in declaratives
5.2.2 Person and number in the imperative -- 5.3 The nominalized paradigm -- 5.3.1 The nominalized declarative -- 5.3.2 The nominalized interrogative -- 5.3.3 The nominalized imperative -- 5.4 Tense, aspect, modality marking -- 5.4.1 TAM in the regular declarative paradigm -- 5.4.2 TAM in the nominalized paradigm -- 5.4.3 TAM in the optative and jussive -- 5.5 Negative and interrogative marking -- 5.5.1 Ma- in the regular paradigm -- i. Ma- and aspectual flip-flops -- ii. Ma- without aspectual flip-flops -- iii. Summary of ma- -- 5.5.2 Ma- in the nominalized paradigm -- 5.5.3 Prohibitives -- 5.5.4 Negative jussives -- 5.6 Derivational affixes -- 5.6.1 Causative morphology -- 5.6.2 Reflexive/middle morphology -- 5.6.3 Old lexicalized verb derivations -- 5.7 Serial verbs: concatenation -- 5.8 Dependent marking -- 5.9 Summary of position classes -- 6 Modifiers and adjectivals -- 6.1 Kham adjective typology -- 6.2 A typology of adjectival sources -- 6.3 Pro-forms -- 6.4 The verbal source -- 6.4.1 Nominalized forms as restrictive modifiers -- 6.4.2 Nominalized forms as non-restrictive modifiers -- i. The adjectival versus nominal distinction in other constructions -- ii. The adjectival versus nominal distinction with intensifiers -- 6.4.3 Sub-sets of descriptive verbs -- i. Derivational and syntactic properties -- ii. Descriptive verbs with nominal morphology -- iii. Distribution of descriptive verbs in text. -- 6.4.4 Participials -- 6.5 The native class of pure adjectives -- 6.6 The nominal source -- 6.6.1 Nominal source in Nepali descriptive nouns -- 6.6.2 Gender distinction -- 6.6.3 Sources for similative nouns/modifiers -- 6.7 The locative source -- 6.8 The expressive source -- 6.9 The loan source -- 6.10 Oppositions: antonyms and complements -- 7 Locatives, dimensionals, and temporal adverbs -- 7.1 Locatives -- 7.1.1 Deictic primitives
7.1.2 Second position landmark locations -- 7.1.3 Other locative roots with unmarked deixis -- 7.1.4 Position classes and combinations -- 7.2 Relator nouns -- 7.3 Dimensional and temporal roots -- 7.3.1 Primary roots -- 7.3.2 Dimensional suffixes -- 7.3.3 Additional bound roots -- 8 Adverbs and adverbials -- 8.1 Adverbs of manner -- 8.1.1 Pro-forms -- 8.1.2 General forms -- 8.2 Adverbs of time -- 8.2.1 Specific time -- 8.2.2 Relative time -- 8.3 Epistemic adverbs -- 8.4 Adverbs of intensity -- 8.5 Expressive adverbs and onomatopoeia -- 8.5.1 Phonological structure -- i. Exact reduplication -- ii. Consonant reduplication -- iii. Pseudo bases -- iv. Consonant change -- 8.5.2 Derived from a verbal source -- i. Modern verb sources -- ii. Expressives in light verb constructions -- iii. Other examples with known verbal sources -- 8.5.3 The nominal source -- 8.5.4 Tibeto-Burman sources -- 8.5.5 Onomatopoeic sources -- 8.5.6 Magnitude symbolism -- 8.5.7 The semantics of expressives -- i. Manner of action -- ii. Degree or intensity of action -- 8.5.8 Derivation from expressives to nominal modifiers -- 9 Minor word classes -- 9.1 Pronouns -- 9.1.1 Possessive pronouns -- 9.1.2 Reflexive, reciprocal and emphatic pronouns -- 9.1.3 Relative and corelative pronouns -- 9.1.4 Generic pronouns -- 9.2 Demonstratives -- 9.3 Question words and indefinite pronouns -- 9.3.1 Bound roots -- 9.3.2 Free roots -- i. The two 'whats' -- ii. Other free roots -- 9.3.3 Reduplication of question words -- 9.3.4 Indefinite pronouns -- i. The 'no' series -- ii. The 'something/anything' series -- iii. The 'whoever/whatever' series -- 9.3.5 Rhetorical and exclamatory use of question words -- 9.4 Quantifiers, numerals, and classifiers -- 9.4.1 Numerals -- 9.4.2 Numeral classifiers -- i. Syntactic features -- ii. Semantic features -- iii. Novel counting units
iv. Classifiers in light verb constructions -- v. Classifier units with numerals past three -- 9.5 Particles and clitics -- 9.5.1 Contrastive focus -- 9.5.2 Emphasis -- i. The emphatic particle in equative clauses -- ii. The emphatic particle in indefinite pronouns -- 9.5.3 Counter-expectation -- 9.5.4 Inclusion -- 9.5.5 Provisional -- 9.5.6 Confirmation -- 9.6 Interjections and expletives -- 9.7 Coordination markers -- 9.7.1 NP coordination -- 9.7.2 Verbal coordination -- 9.7.3 Adverbial coordination -- 9.7.4 Sentence and discourse coordinators -- 10 Noun phrases, nominalizations, and relative clauses -- 10.1 Noun phrases -- 10.1.1 Restrictive ordering of elements -- i. Inflection and NP syntax -- ii. Multiple modifiers -- 10.1.2 Non-Restrictive ordering of elements -- i. Apposition -- ii. Compounding -- 10.1.3 Noun phrase coordination -- i. Simple coordination -- ii. Coordination using a conjunction word -- 10.2 Nominalization -- 10.2.1 Non-finite nominalizations -- 10.2.2 Non-finite forms and complement structures -- 10.3 Relative clause nominalizations -- 10.3.1 Subject relative clauses -- i. Tense/aspect in subject relative clauses -- ii. Ascription of quality -- iii. Relativized locatives -- iv. Non-restrictive subject relative clauses -- 10.3.2 Non-subject relative clauses -- i. Non-subject relatives with 1ST or 2ND person objects -- ii. Benefactive advancement -- iii. Non-subject relative clauses in non-restrictive configuration -- 10.3.3 Non-subject intransitive relative clauses -- i. A reinterpretation of the relativized verb 'to be' -- 10.4 Relativized time adverbial clauses -- 10.5 Relativized clause chains -- 11 Simple clauses, transitivity, and voice -- 11.1 Basic constituent order in simple clauses -- 11.2 Equative clauses -- 11.2.1 The negative equative -- 11.2.2 The equative interrogative -- 11.2.3 Equatives with embedded clauses
11.3 Copular constructions
This is a comprehensive grammatical documentation of Kham, a previously undescribed language from west-central Nepal
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Watters, David E. A Grammar of Kham Cambridge : Cambridge University Press,c2002 9780521812450
Subject Kham language--Grammar
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