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作者 Schmitt, Carl George
書名 The characteristics of mid-latitude and low-latitude ice cloud crystals
國際標準書號 9781109535822
book jacket
說明 190 p
附註 Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 71-01, Section: B, page: 0165
Adviser: Andrew J. Heymsfield
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Colorado at Boulder, 2009
An accurate understanding of the dimensional characteristics of atmospheric ice crystals is important for weather and climate models. Ice crystal fall speed which partially governs cloud lifetime is dependent on crystal mass and projected area. Ice cloud radiative properties are dependent on crystal shape as well as cloud optical thickness which can vary widely depending on local conditions and cloud formation mechanisms. These are some of the reasons that cirrus clouds are considered to be one of the most uncertain elements in the earth's climate system. This thesis addresses some of these uncertainties
Mid-latitude cirrus clouds are frequently composed of bullet rosette shaped ice crystals. Bullet rosettes can grow with hollow ends which affects their radiative properties. In chapter 2, the frequency of occurrence of bullet rosettes with hollows ends is investigated. The radiative properties of hollow crystals are investigated in Chapter 3. For a thin cloud (optical depth of unity) with hollow crystals would lead to a difference of 5 W/m2 in short wave radiation at the surface compared to solid crystals
The properties of low latitude sub-visible cirrus cloud particles have been poorly investigated due to the difficulty of reaching them with instrumented aircraft. The properties of sub-visible cirrus clouds are investigated through the analysis of a large dataset of aircraft observations in chapter 4. Parameterizations for particle area, mass, size distributions and mass weighted fall speeds are developed. Mass weighted fall speeds were found to be lower than predicted by previous parameterizations due to the lack of large particles compared to previous studies
Most atmospheric ice cloud particles are irregular in shape. The final two research topics addressed in this thesis investigate the dimensional characteristics of irregularly shaped ice particles. In chapter 5, the total surface area of irregular ice crystals is investigated. Knowledge of particle surface area is important for atmospheric chemistry applications. In Chapter 6, ice crystal projected area and mass are investigated using fractal geometry techniques. Ice crystal aggregation was simulated to investigate the structure of ice crystal aggregates. The fractal analysis allows the determination of mass dimensional relationships from particle projected area measurements
School code: 0051
Host Item Dissertation Abstracts International 71-01B
主題 Atmospheric Sciences
Alt Author University of Colorado at Boulder. Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
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