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作者 Dabbs, Gretchen Rae
書名 Health and nutrition at prehistoric Point Hope, Alaska: Application and critique of the Western Hemisphere Health Index
國際標準書號 9781109210392
book jacket
說明 215 p
附註 Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 70-06, Section: A, page: 2116
Includes supplementary digital materials
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Arkansas, 2009
This project utilizes the Mark I Health Index outlined in The Backbone of History to assess the overall health status of two archaeological populations from Point Hope, Alaska. The Ipiutak (100BC-500AD) and Tigara (1300-1700AD) are similar in many aspects, including house site location, housing structure, and dietary composition. The largest differences between these two populations are that the Ipiutak were seasonal residents at Point Hope, occupying the spit during the summer months, while the Tigara were permanent residents, and that the economy of the Ipiutak was focused mainly on caribou hunting, supplemented with sea mammals, while the Tigara hunted whales, and supplemented their diets with smaller sea mammals. Both groups had diets comprised mostly of protein and fat, with very little carbohydrate inclusion
This project uses skeletal evidence for stature, anemia, hypoplasias, trauma, infection, degenerative joint disease, and overall dental health, to assess composite health status for the Ipiutak and Tigara in an effort to identify health consequences to the economic shift observed between these two groups. This project found essentially no difference between the Ipiutak and Tigara in terms of overall health status, despite the fact that many of the component health indicator scores are dramatically different for the two samples. The Ipiutak are shorter, have more anemia, and substantially more infection, while the Tigara are taller, have more hypoplasias, and very little infection. The scores for DJD, trauma, and dental health are similar for both groups. Overall, this suggests the Ipiutak lived under conditions of chronic low-level stress, while the Tigara were subject to severe, but acute stress
Additionally, composite health index scores were used to examine potential health status differences between the males and females of each group. The males and females of both the Ipiutak and Tigara have health index scores that are functionally identical, despite having distinct component scores. Both groups have inter-sex differences that reflect a pattern of more low-level, chronic stress in females, while males experience more acute, severe stress. Ipiutak males have more hypoplasias, infection, and trauma, while females have more anemia. The Tigara males have more hypoplasias, while the females again have more anemia. Those component scores not mentioned are very similar between the two sexes within each group
Comparison of the overall health index score, after removing stature as a component, shows the Ipiutak and Tigara both fall near the 65-site mean published in The Backbone of History, suggesting that despite the harsh living conditions, the Ipiutak and Tigara were experiencing health statuses similar to groups living in environments considered "better." Thus, this project demonstrates that human groups can culturally adapt to survive, if not thrive, in extremely harsh environmental conditions
Finally, this project represents the first attempt, by a researcher not working for the Western Hemisphere project, to utilize the protocol and companion website for data analysis, as such, there are critiques both of the protocol, and the publicly available data analysis tools. Several minor issues were identified with the publicly available health index calculation module, the most severe of which brings into question the use of stature as a component health index score as the computation code currently exists. As the code current computes, there seems to be no allocation for sexual dimorphism in stature, thus always handicapping females in the stature component. Additionally, this author suggests the trauma component score should account for all trauma observed on the skeleton, not just those observed in the six fields identified by The Backbone of History, as all traumatic injury has health consequences
School code: 0011
Host Item Dissertation Abstracts International 70-06A
主題 Anthropology, Physical
Anthropology, Medical and Forensic
0327
0339
Alt Author University of Arkansas
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