MARC 主機 00000nam  2200385   4500 
001    AAI3107546 
005    20051216110234.5 
008    051216s2004                        eng d 
020    0496550950 
035    (UnM)AAI3107546 
040    UnM|cUnM 
100 1  Morris, Susan W 
245 10 Resource networks: Industrial research in small 
       enterprises, 1860--1930 
300    383 p 
500    Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 64-
       10, Section: A, page: 3821 
500    Advisers: Robert H. Kargon; Willis K. Shepard 
502    Thesis (Ph.D.)--The Johns Hopkins University, 2004 
520    This dissertation examines industrial research in small 
       enterprises between the years 1860 and 1930, using the 
       perspective of  scientist-entrepreneurs: scientists who 
       start their own companies in order to commercialize their 
       unique knowledge, discoveries and inventions. Since new 
       firms are generally small, this approach eases the 
       difficulty of finding small enterprises, which might 
       otherwise avoid detection. Viewing research from the onset
       of a scientist's entrepreneurial activity allows one to 
       study the research that led to the formation of a new 
       company. The most important research undertaken by science
       -based enterprises can be that which leads to the firm's 
       existence, yet this formative research often remains 
       hidden when studying industrial research from the vantage 
       point of institutional history. Studying scientist-
       entrepreneurs allows us to examine the context within 
       which enterprises arose, which frequently entailed a close
       and heretofore unappreciated relationship between academic
       and commercial science at this early date 
520    Since the historical literature on industrial research has
       focused on the laboratories of large, 20th-century 
       corporations, this dissertation is the first extended 
       investigation of scientific industrial research in small 
       organizations. The principal question of interest is 
       therefore to learn how small enterprises marshaled the 
       resources necessary to engage in research, generally 
       considered to be a costly undertaking requiring the 
       support of a large and profitable corporate parent. The 
       principal finding of the dissertation is that, led by the 
       scientist-entrepreneur, small enterprises organized unique
       resource networks consisting of a mix of individuals, 
       specialized institutions, and other small firms, that 
       provided for the small enterprise all the resources we 
       normally associate with the large corporation 
520    The five case studies examine scientists both renowned and
       obscure: Henry Wurtz (1828--1910), Henry A. Rowland (1848-
       -1901), Edward Hart (1854--1931), Leo H. Baekeland (1863--
       1944), and the pairing of Charles F. Brush, Jr. (1893--
       1927) and Charles B. Sawyer (1894--1964) 
590    School code: 0098 
590    DDC 
650  4 History of Science 
650  4 Economics, History 
650  4 History, United States 
690    0585 
690    0509 
690    0337 
710 20 The Johns Hopkins University 
773 0  |tDissertation Abstracts International|g64-10A 
856 40 |u