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作者 Gill, Leslie Anne
書名 Individual differences in comprehension skill: Cognitive and electrophysiological correlates
說明 217 p
附註 Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 56-07, Section: B, page: 4040
Major Professors: Dennis L. Molfese; Robert C. Radtke
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1994
Many cognitive and linguistic processes are utilized during language comprehension. Gernsbacher's (1991) Structure Building Framework suggests that the ability to suppress irrelevant information underlies comprehension skill differences. Just and Carpenter's (1992) Capacity Constrained Comprehension theory suggests that the interaction between working memory capacity and the storage and processing demands of the material to be comprehended accounts for differences in comprehension skill. In the present study, 20 undergraduates (10 more, 10 less skilled comprehenders) participated in experiment 1. Subjects read sentences that ended either with a homophone or with a semantically comparable nonhomophone, followed by target words that either matched or mismatched the sentence meaning. Target words were presented at two interstimulus intervals (ISIs): immediate (100 msec), and delayed (1000 msec). Subjects' mismatch reaction times indicated that the inappropriate homophone meaning interfered with immediate ISI mismatch decisions in both comprehension groups. In addition, both groups' reaction times did not differ for homophone versus nonhomophone sentences with delayed ISI mismatch decisions, suggesting that both groups adequately suppressed the inappropriate homophone meaning
Mismatch reaction times and event-related potentials were collected from 28 undergraduates (14 more, 14 less skilled comprehenders) in experiment 2 using a stimulus paradigm similar to that of experiment 1 which additionally manipulated whether the homophones were dominant (high word frequency) or subordinate (low word frequency). As with experiment 1, reaction time data indicated that the inappropriate homophone meaning interfered with both comprehension groups' immediate ISI mismatch decisions, and that both groups suppressed the inappropriate meaning in the delayed ISI condition. Both groups' P300 and N400 amplitude changed as function of sentence type and ISI similar to the reaction time effects. In the immediate ISI condition, more skilled comprehenders' parietal P300 latency indicated that the (appropriate) dominant homophone meaning enhanced their mismatch decisions. In contrast, less skilled comprehenders' central P300 latency indicated that only when the inappropriate meaning was the dominant homophone did it interfere with their mismatch decisions in the immediate ISI condition. Primary explanations for the lack of comprehension group differences included the use of between subjects design and response correctness feedback in previous research
School code: 0209
Host Item Dissertation Abstracts International 56-07B
主題 Language, Linguistics
Psychology, Experimental
Alt Author Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
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