MARC 主機 00000cam  2200000 a 4500 
001    AAI10670262 
005    20180531103649.5 
008    180531s2017    miu           000 0 eng d 
020    9780355365160 
035    (MiAaPQ)AAI10670262 
035    (MiAaPQ)umichrackham:000953  
040    MiAaPQ|beng|cMiAaPQ|dAS 
100 1  de los Santos, Guadalupe  
245 10 Using Eye-Tracking to Examine Grammatical Predictability 
       in Spanish-English Bilinguals and Spanish Language 
       Learners|h[electronic resource] /|cGuadalupe de los Santos
260    Ann Arbor :|bProQuest Dissertations & Theses,|c2017 
300    1 online resource 
500    Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 79-
       04(E), Section: B 
500    Adviser: Julie E. Boland 
502    Thesis(Ph.D.) - University of Michigan, 2017 
520    Bilingualism is prevalent, with over half of the 
       population of the world being bilingual. While bilinguals 
       have traditionally been viewed as having two separate 
       languages, modern views of language suggest that languages
       are not completely separate in the mind. This is 
       especially evident in cases of intrasentential code-
       switching, when a speaker switches languages mid-sentence.
       Such points are of interest because they represent cases 
       when the languages are activated simultaneously 
520    This dissertation expands our understanding of multi-
       language representation by investigating whether some 
       grammatical representations generated by Spanish-English 
       bilinguals and Spanish L2 language learners during reading
       are specific to the input language used to create the 
       representation, or whether those representations are 
       language-independent. Using eye-tracking, we measured 
       reading times on nouns in grammatical (determiner-noun) 
       and ungrammatical (adverb-noun) contexts, in both same 
       language and mixed language pairs, as participants 
       performed a two-string lexical decision task 
520    Experiment 1 found that bilinguals read nouns faster 
       following determiners than adverbs. Crucially, this 
       grammatical predictability effect did not interact with 
       the same/mixed language variable. This suggests that 
       grammatical predictability in this context is language-
       independent, not affected by language nor the presence of 
       a language switch. Experiment 2 found a similar pattern 
       for Spanish language learners, though it was not 
       significant. When the data for Experiment 1 and Experiment
       2 were combined, there was a main effect of grammaticality
       that did not interact with language congruency, suggesting
       that language-independent predictions influenced reading 
       times for both bilinguals and language learners 
520    Experiment 3 took into account categorical ambiguity, i.e.,
       that the same word can belong to more than one grammatical
       class. We computed two conditional probabilities over 
       abstract grammatical categories to represent 
       grammaticality in a more fine-grained way, allowing 
       syntactic category ambiguity. Participants read the second
       word faster as its probability given the category of the 
       first word increased. This grammatical predictability 
       effect was language-independent, in that it was not 
       modulated by a language switch 
520    Overall, this dissertation provides an in-depth 
       investigation into multi-language representation and 
       grammatical predictability in Spanish/English bilinguals, 
       focusing on syntactic sequences that have the same word 
       order in the two languages. Our results most strongly 
       support the shared syntax view of bilingual language 
       representation, having found language-independent 
       grammatical predictability across experiments 
590    School code: 0127 
650  4 Cognitive psychology  
650  4 Language 
710 2  University of Michigan.|bPsychology  
773 0  |tDissertation Abstracts International|g79-04B(E) 
856 40 |zDigital Dissertation Consortium|uhttp://ddc.elib.com.tw/
       doc/10670262