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作者 Szabo, Thomas L
書名 Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging : Inside Out
出版項 San Diego : Elsevier Science & Technology, 2013
©2014
國際標準書號 9780123965424 (electronic bk.)
9780123964878
book jacket
版本 2nd ed
說明 1 online resource (829 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
系列 Biomedical Engineering Ser
Biomedical Engineering Ser
附註 Front Cover -- Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging: Inside Out -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.1.1 Early Beginnings -- 1.1.2 Sonar -- 1.2 Echo Ranging of the Body -- 1.3 Ultrasound Portrait Photographers -- 1.4 Ultrasound Cinematographers -- 1.5 Modern Ultrasound Imaging Developments -- 1.6 Enabling Technologies for Ultrasound Imaging -- 1.7 Ultrasound Imaging Safety -- 1.8 Ultrasound and Other Diagnostic Imaging Modalities -- 1.8.1 Imaging Modalities Compared -- 1.8.2 Ultrasound -- 1.8.3 Plane X-rays -- 1.8.4 Computed Tomography Imaging -- 1.8.5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging -- Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications -- 1.8.6 Magnetoencephalography -- 1.8.7 Positron Emission Tomography -- 1.9 Contrast Agents -- 1.9.1 Computed Tomography Agents -- 1.9.2 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agents -- 1.9.3 Ultrasound Agents -- 1.10 Comparison of Imaging Modalities -- 1.10.1 Image Fusion -- 1.10.2 Multi-wave and Interactive Imaging -- 1.11 Conclusion -- References -- Bibliography -- 2 Overview -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Fourier Transform -- 2.2.1 Introduction to the Fourier Transform -- 2.2.2 Fourier Transform Relationships -- 2.3 Building Blocks -- 2.3.1 Time and Frequency Building Blocks -- 2.3.2 Space Wave Number Building Block -- Spatial Transforms -- Spatial Transform of a Line Source -- Spatial Frequency Building Blocks -- 2.4 Central Diagram -- References -- 3 Acoustic Wave Propagation -- 3.1 Introduction to Waves -- 3.2 Plane Waves in Liquids and Solids -- 3.2.1 Introduction -- 3.2.2 Wave Equations for Fluids -- 3.2.3 One-dimensional Wave Hitting a Boundary -- 3.2.4 ABCD Matrices -- 3.2.5 Oblique Waves at a Liquid-Liquid Boundary -- 3.3 Elastic Waves in Solids -- 3.3.1 Types of Waves -- 3.3.2 Equivalent Networks for Waves -- 3.3.3 Waves at a Fluid-Solid Boundary
3.4 Elastic Wave Equations -- 3.5 Conclusion -- References -- Bibliography -- 4 Attenuation -- 4.1 Losses in Tissues -- 4.1.1 Losses in Exponential Terms and in Decibels -- 4.1.2 Tissue Data -- 4.2 Losses in Both Frequency and Time Domains -- 4.2.1 The Material Transfer Function -- 4.2.2 The Material Impulse Response Function -- 4.3 Tissue Models -- 4.3.1 Introduction -- 4.3.2 The Time Causal Model -- 4.4 Pulses in Lossy Media -- 4.4.1 Scaling of the Material Impulse Response Function -- 4.4.2 Pulse Propagation: Interactive Effects in Time and Frequency -- 4.4.3 Pulse Echo Propagation -- 4.5 Modified Hooke's Laws and Tissue Models for Viscoelastic Media -- 4.5.1 Voigt Model -- 4.5.2 Time Causal Model -- 4.5.3 Maxwell Model -- 4.5.4 Thermoviscous Relaxation Model -- 4.5.5 Multiple Relaxation Model -- 4.5.6 Zener Model -- 4.5.7 Fractional Zener and Kelvin-Voigt Fractional Derivative Models -- 4.6 Wave Equations for Tissues -- 4.6.1 Voigt Model Wave Equation -- 4.6.2 Time Causal Model Wave Equations -- 4.6.3 Time Causal Model Wave Equations in Fractional Calculus Form -- 4.7 Discussion -- 4.7.1 First Principles -- 4.7.2 Power Law Wave Equation Implementations -- 4.7.3 Transient Solutions for Power Law Media -- 4.7.4 Green Functions for Power Law Media -- 4.7.5 Shear Waves in Power Law Media -- 4.8 Penetration and Time Gain Compensation -- References -- 5 Transducers -- 5.1 Introduction to Transducers -- 5.1.1 Transducer Basics -- 5.1.2 Transducer Electrical Impedance -- 5.1.3 Summary -- 5.2 Resonant Modes of Transducers -- 5.2.1 Resonant Crystal Geometries -- 5.2.2 Determination of Electroacoustic Coupling Constants -- 5.2.3 Array Construction -- 5.3 Equivalent Circuit Transducer Model -- 5.3.1 KLM Equivalent Circuit Model -- 5.3.2 Organization of Overall Transducer Model -- 5.3.3 Transducer at Resonance -- 5.4 Transducer Design Considerations
5.4.1 Introduction -- 5.4.2 Insertion Loss and Transducer Loss -- 5.4.3 Electrical Loss -- 5.4.4 Acoustical Loss -- 5.4.5 Matching Layers -- 5.4.6 Design Examples -- 5.5 Transducer Pulses -- 5.5.1 Standard Pulse and Spectral Measurements -- 5.6 Equations for Piezoelectric Media -- 5.7 Piezoelectric Materials -- 5.7.1 Introduction -- 5.7.2 Normal Polycrystalline Piezoelectric Ceramics -- 5.7.3 Relaxor Piezoelectric Ceramics -- 5.7.4 Single-crystal Ferroelectrics -- 5.7.5 Piezoelectric Organic Polymers -- 5.7.6 Domain-engineered Ferroelectric Single Crystals -- 5.7.7 Composite Materials -- 5.7.8 Piezoelectric Gels -- 5.7.9 Lead-free Piezoelectrics -- 5.8 Comparison of Piezoelectric Materials -- 5.9 Transducer Advanced Topics -- 5.9.1 Internal Transducer Losses -- 5.9.2 Trends in Transducer Modeling -- 5.9.3 Matrix or 2D Arrays -- 5.9.4 CMUT Arrays -- 5.9.5 High-Frequency Transducers -- References -- Bibliography -- 6 Beamforming -- 6.1 What is Diffraction? -- 6.2 Fresnel Approximation of Spatial Diffraction Integral -- 6.3 Rectangular Aperture -- 6.4 Apodization -- 6.5 Circular Apertures -- 6.5.1 Near and Far Fields for Circular Apertures -- 6.5.2 Universal Relations for Circular Apertures -- 6.6 Focusing -- 6.6.1 Introduction to Focusing -- 6.6.2 Derivation of Focusing Relations -- 6.6.3 Zones for Focusing Transducers -- 6.6.4 Focusing Gain and Peak Pressure Values -- 6.6.5 Depth of Field -- 6.6.6 Scaling of Beams -- 6.6.7 Focusing Summary -- 6.7 Angular Spectrum of Waves -- 6.8 Diffraction Loss -- 6.9 Limited Diffraction Beams -- 6.10 Holey Focusing Transducers -- References -- Bibliography -- 7 Array Beamforming -- 7.1 Why Arrays? -- 7.2 Diffraction in the Time Domain -- 7.3 Circular Radiators in the Time Domain -- 7.4 Arrays -- 7.4.1 The Array Element -- 7.4.2 Pulsed Excitation of an Element -- 7.4.3 Array Sampling and Grating Lobes
7.4.4 Element Factors -- 7.4.5 Beam Steering -- 7.4.6 Focusing and Steering -- 7.5 Pulse-Echo Beamforming -- 7.5.1 Introduction -- 7.5.2 Beam-shaping -- 7.5.3 Pulse-Echo Focusing -- 7.6 Two-dimensional Arrays -- 7.7 Baffled -- 7.8 Computational Diffraction Methods -- 7.9 Nonideal Array Performance -- 7.9.1 Quantization and Defective Elements -- 7.9.2 Sparse and Thinned Arrays -- 7.9.3 1.5-dimensional Arrays -- 7.9.4 Diffraction in Absorbing Media -- 7.9.5 Body Effects -- 7.10 Conformable and Deformable Arrays -- References -- Bibliography -- 8 Wave Scattering and Imaging -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Scattering of Objects -- 8.2.1 Specular Scattering -- 8.2.2 Diffusive Scattering -- 8.2.3 Diffractive Scattering -- Frequency Domain Born Approximation -- 8.2.4 Scattering Summary -- 8.3 Role of Transducer Diffraction and Focusing -- 8.3.1 Time Domain Born Approximation Including Diffraction -- 8.4 Role of Imaging -- 8.4.1 Imaging Process -- 8.4.2 A Different Attitude -- 8.4.3 Speckle -- 8.4.4 Contrast -- 8.4.5 Van Cittert-Zernike Theorem -- 8.4.6 Speckle Reduction -- 8.4.7 Speckle Tracking -- References -- Bibliography -- 9 Scattering From Tissue and Tissue Characterization -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Scattering from Tissues -- 9.3 Properties of and Propagation in Heterogeneous Tissue -- 9.3.1 Properties of Heterogeneous Tissue -- 9.3.2 Propagation in Heterogeneous Tissue -- 9.4 Array Processing of Scattered Pulse-Echo Signals -- 9.5 Tissue Characterization Methods -- 9.5.1 Introduction -- 9.5.2 Fundamentals -- 9.5.3 Backscattering Definitions -- 9.5.4 The Classic Formulation -- 9.5.5 Extensions of the Original Backscatter Methodology -- 9.5.6 Integrated Backscatter -- 9.5.7 Spectral Features -- 9.5.8 Backscattering Comparisons -- 9.6 Applications of Tissue Characterization -- 9.6.1 Radiology and Ophthalmic Applications -- 9.6.2 Cardiac Applications
9.6.3 High-Frequency Applications -- 9.6.4 Texture Analysis and Image Analysis -- 9.7 Aberration Correction -- 9.7.1 General Methods -- 9.7.2 Time Reversal -- 9.7.3 Focusing through the Skull -- 9.8 Wave Equations for Tissue -- References -- Bibliography -- 10 Imaging Systems and Applications -- 10.1 Introduction -- 10.2 Trends in Imaging Systems -- 10.2.1 General Commercial Systems -- 10.2.2 New Developments -- 10.3 Major Controls -- 10.4 Block Diagram -- 10.5 Major Modes -- 10.6 Clinical Applications -- 10.7 Transducers and Image Formats -- 10.7.1 Image Formats and Transducer Types -- 10.7.2 Transducer Implementations -- 10.7.3 Multidimensional Arrays -- 10.8 Front End -- 10.8.1 Transmitters -- 10.8.2 Receivers -- 10.9 Scanner -- 10.9.1 Beamformers -- 10.9.2 Signal Processors -- Bandpass filters -- Matched filters -- 10.10 Back End -- 10.10.1 Scan Conversion and Display -- 10.10.2 Computation and Software -- 10.11 Advanced Signal Processing -- 10.11.1 High-end Imaging Systems -- 10.11.2 Attenuation and Diffraction Amplitude Compensation -- 10.11.3 Frequency Compounding -- 10.11.4 Spatial Compounding -- 10.11.5 Real-time Border Detection -- 10.11.6 Three- and Four-dimensional Imaging -- 10.12 Alternate Imaging System Architectures -- 10.12.1 Introduction -- 10.12.2 Plane-wave Compounding -- 10.12.3 Fourier Transform Imaging -- 10.12.4 Synthetic Aperture Imaging -- 10.12.5 Parallel Beamforming Archictectures -- 10.12.6 Ultrasound Research Systems -- Verasonics System -- Ultrasonix imaging system -- Visualsonics imaging systems -- Other research systems -- References -- Bibliography -- 11 Doppler Modes -- 11.1 Introduction -- 11.2 The Doppler Effect -- 11.3 Scattering from Flowing Blood in Vessels -- 11.4 Continuous-Wave Doppler -- 11.5 Pulsed-Wave Doppler -- 11.5.1 Introduction -- 11.5.2 Range-Gated Pulsed Doppler Processing
11.5.3 Quadrature Sampling
Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging provides a unified description of the physical principles of ultrasound imaging, signal processing, systems and measurements. This comprehensive reference is a core resource for both graduate students and engineers in medical ultrasound research and design. With continuing rapid technological development of ultrasound in medical diagnosis, it is a critical subject for biomedical engineers, clinical and healthcare engineers and practitioners, medical physicists, and related professionals in the fields of signal and image processing. The book contains 17 new and updated chapters covering the fundamentals and latest advances in the area, and includes four appendices, 450 figures (60 available in color on the companion website), and almost 1,500 references. In addition to the continual influx of readers entering the field of ultrasound worldwide who need the broad grounding in the core technologies of ultrasound, this book provides those already working in these areas with clear and comprehensive expositions of these key new topics as well as introductions to state-of-the-art innovations in this field. Enables practicing engineers, students and clinical professionals to understand the essential physics and signal processing techniques behind modern imaging systems as well as introducing the latest developments that will shape medical ultrasound in the future Suitable for both newcomers and experienced readers, the practical, progressively organized applied approach is supported by hands-on MATLAB® code and worked examples that enable readers to understand the principles underlying diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound Covers the new important developments in the use of medical ultrasound: elastography and high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound. Many new developments are comprehensively reviewed and explained, including
aberration correction, acoustic measurements, acoustic radiation force imaging, alternate imaging architectures, bioeffects: diagnostic to therapeutic, Fourier transform imaging, multimode imaging, plane wave compounding, research platforms, synthetic aperture, vector Doppler, transient shear wave elastography, ultrafast imaging and Doppler, functional ultrasound and viscoelastic models
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
鏈接 Print version: Szabo, Thomas L. Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging: Inside Out San Diego : Elsevier Science & Technology,c2013 9780123964878
主題 Diagnostic ultrasonic imaging.;Ultrasonic imaging
Electronic books
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