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作者 Bank, World
書名 Financing Higher Education in Africa
出版項 Herndon : World Bank Publications, 2010
©2010
國際標準書號 9780821383377 (electronic bk.)
9780821383346
book jacket
說明 1 online resource (194 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
附註 Intro -- Contents -- Foreword -- Acknowledgments -- Abbreviations -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- Rising Social Demand and Sustainable Financing -- Main Features of Current Funding Policies and Practices -- Tools for Financially Sustainable Policies -- The Implementation of Financing Reforms -- Purpose and Organization of the Study -- Chapter 2 Rising Social Demand and the Challenge of Sustainable Financing -- Current Demand for Higher Education and Government Funding Capacity -- Public Resources per Student and Efforts to Raise Quality -- Projected Demand for Higher Education and Public Financing -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 3 Main Features of Current Funding Policies and Practices -- Operating Budget Allocation Practices -- Investment Budget Allocation Practices -- Budget Management Practices and the Optimal Use of Available Resources -- Private Funding for Tertiary Education -- Student Financial Assistance -- Loan Programs -- External Assistance to Higher Education -- Foundation Support -- External Aid for Research and Development -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 4 Tools for Financially Sustainable Tertiary Education Policies -- Improving the Management of Public Financing -- Managing the Trends in Student Flows -- Developing Distance Education -- Mobilizing Private Resources -- Streamlining Student Support Services -- Promoting the Private Sector -- Rethinking Research Funding -- Combining Tools for Financially Sustainable Tertiary Education Policies -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 5 Ensuring the Successful Implementation of Financing Reforms -- Addressing the Political Feasibility of Reforms -- Putting in Place Favorable Governance Arrangements -- Strengthening Planning and Management Capacity -- Assessing Policy Options to Anticipate Possible Consequences -- References -- 3.1 Budget Allocation Practices in Mali
3.2 Line Item Budgeting in Uganda -- 3.3 Normative Input-based Budgeting in Nigeria -- 3.4 Formula Funding in South Africa -- 3.5 Research Funding in Nigeria -- 3.6 Research Funding for Agriculture -- 3.7 A Financial Revolution: Makerere University in Uganda -- 3.8 Tuition Fees in Public Higher Education Institutions in Benin -- 3.9 The Cost of Studies Abroad: The Case of Mauritius -- 3.10 The Nature of Direct and Indirect Aid to Higher Education -- 3.11 Building ICT Capacities in Africa -- 3.12 Support for Higher Education -- 3.13 How Many African Students Return to Their Country of Origin after Completing Their Studies? -- 3.14 The National Research Fund and Modalities of Funding in Mozambique -- 3.15 Methodological Note -- 4.1 Ghana Education Trust Fund -- 4.2 Emergency Universities Program in Côte d'Ivoire -- 4.3 Mozambique's Competitive Fund for Tertiary Education -- 4.4 International Experience with Competitive Funds -- 4.5 A Plan for Streamlining Higher Education in Côte d'Ivoire -- 4.6 Selective Admission into Higher Education -- 4.7 A Distance Education Experiment -- 4.8 Phasing the Introduction of Cost Sharing: The Case of Tanzania -- 4.9 Some Rules for Avoiding Budget Overruns Resulting from Grants or Scholarships -- 4.10 An Alternative to Scholarships Abroad: Building and Offering Quality Local Education -- 4.11 Examples of the State's Disengagement from Housing, Catering, and Other Nonacademic Services Provided to Students -- 4.12 Development of Private Higher Education in Some African Countries -- 5.1 Consensus Building and Cost Sharing in Northern Mexico -- 5.2 Autonomy and Excellence at Work: The National School of Business Administration -- 2.1 Share of Higher Education in Current Public Expenditure on Education in African Countries, 2006 (or Closest Year)
2.2 Public Expenditure on Higher Education and the Form of the Education Pyramid in African Countries, 2006 (or Closest Year) -- 2.3 Change in the Number of Higher Education Students and Expenditure on Higher Education in Two Groups of African Countries, 1991-2006 -- 2.4 Ratio between the Change in the Number of Higher Education Students and the Amount of Public Resources Allocated to Current Expenditure on Higher Education in African Countries, 1991-2006 -- 2.5 Annual Current Public Expenditure per Student in African Countries, 2006 (or Closest Year) -- 2.6 Public Expenditure per Student and Ratio of the Number of Students to the Current Level of Public Expenditure on Higher Education in Select African Countries, 2006 -- 2.7 Student-Teacher Ratio in Higher Education in Select African Countries, Public and Private Sectors Combined, 2006 (or Closest Year) -- 2.8 Change in the Number of Higher Education Students in Africa, 1982-2006 and Projected through 2015 -- 2.9 Number of Students Expected in 2015 in African Countries on the Basis of Current Trends in Higher Education Growth -- 2.10 Current Expenditure on Higher Education and Public Expenditure Required to Expand Higher Education in Africa at Current Rates and Unit Costs, 2004-15 -- 3.1 Share of Households in National Expenditure on Higher Education in Select African Countries, 2004 (or Closest Year) -- 3.2 Average Share of Households in National Expenditure on Education in 18 African Countries, by Level of Instruction, 2004 (or Closest Year) -- 3.3 Breakdown of Current Public Expenditure on Higher Education in Select African Countries -- 3.4 Trade-off between Social and Wage Expenditure within the Public Higher Education Budget in Select African Countries -- 3.5 Proportion of African Students Enrolled in Private Institutions, 35 Countries, 2006 (or Closest Year)
3.6 Distribution of Aid to Higher Education, by Region, 2002-06 Average (Commitments) -- 3.7 Aid to Education in Sub-Saharan Africa, by Level of Education, 2002-06 Average -- 3.8 Total Aid to Africa for Higher Education, Commitments, 2002-06 -- 3.9 Direct Aid to Higher Education in Select African Countries, Annual Average Commitments, 2001-06 -- 3.10 Direct Aid to Higher Education per Student in Select African Countries, Annual Average Commitments, 2001-06 -- 3.11 Assistance from the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa, 2000-08 -- 4.1 Estimated Number of Higher Education Students in Mali, Assuming Current Trends and Regulations in Secondary Education, 2005-16 -- 4.2 Number of Students as a Function of Length of Studies -- 4.3 Estimated Number of Higher Education Students in Mali, Assuming Current Trends and Various Flow Management Measures, 2005-16 -- 4.4 Number of Foreign Students Studying in Morocco and Number of Moroccan Students Studying Abroad, 2003-06 -- 2.1 Public Expenditure on Higher Education as a Percentage of GDP, by Country Group, 1990 and 2006 -- 2.2 Share of Higher Education in Current Public Expenditure on Education, by Country Group, 1990 and 2006 -- 2.3 Ratio between the Increase in the Number of Higher Education Students and the Increase in Public Resources Allocated to Current Expenditure on Higher Education, by Country Group, 1991 and 2006 -- 2.4 Average Gross Enrollment Ratio in 31 Sub-Saharan African Countries, by Level of Education, 1990-2005 -- 2.5 Average Public Expenditure per Student in 18 Sub-Saharan African Countries, by Level of Education, 1975, 1990, and 2003 -- 2.6 Annual Public Expenditure per Student, by Country Group, 1990 and 2006 -- 2.7 Number of Scientific Publications and Patent Applications, by Region, 2002
2.8 Number of Students and Average Annual Expenditure Required to Support the Expansion of Higher Education in African Countries at Current Enrollment Rates and Unit Costs, 2004-15 -- 2.9 Proportion of Senior Faculty Members in Public Higher Education Institutions in Select African Countries -- 3.1 Methods of Allocating the Higher Education Budget in Select African Countries -- 3.2 Budgeting Modalities -- 3.3 Entity in Charge of Higher Education Oversight, by Language Area -- 3.4 Types and Amounts of Tuition Fees in Public Higher Education Institutions -- 3.5 Financial Significance of Tuition Fees in Select Countries -- 3.6 Composition of Higher Education Budget, by Country Group, 2006 or Closest Year -- 3.7 Share of Scholarships Abroad in Current Higher Education Expenditures in 19 African Countries, Most Recent Year Available -- 3.8 Share of Own Resources in the Total Revenue of Public Higher Education Institutions in Select African Countries -- 3.9 Student Financial Assistance Programs in African Countries -- 3.10 Student Loan Schemes in Africa -- 3.11 Loan Recovery in Select African Countries -- 3.12 Indirect Aid to Higher Education in Select African Countries, Annual Average Commitments, 2001-06 -- 3.13 Direct and Indirect Aid to Higher Education in Select African Countries, Annual Average Commitments, 2001-06 -- 3.14 Targets for Expenditure on Select Sectoral Priorities -- 4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Funding Mechanisms -- 4.2 Measures for the Sustainable Financing of Higher Education -- 5.1 Changing Approaches to Financial Control in Madagascar
Sustainable growth in SSA is contingent on the capacity of States to diversify their economies and thus train human capital that will help carry out and support this transformation. Higher education plays a key role in training qualified individuals who will be able to implement new technologies, and use innovative methods to establish cost-efficient and effective enterprises and institutions. Through research and increased knowledge, higher education can also help address the challenges arising from the increase in the size of the population, limited arable land, endemic diseases, urbanization, energy costs, and climate change. However, in order for SSA to reap the benefits of this investment in human capital, higher education institutions must secure financing to provide quality training and sound professional prospects to their students. Currently, tertiary education development is unsustainable, resources per student are declining, and the quality of education is affected. These issues are particularly pressing in times of financial global crisis when available resources for tertiary education uncontrovertibly tend to diminish. The impact of the crisis that started in 2008 provides a clear illustration of the need to explore innovative ways to diversify and secure financing for higher education in SSA. This report provides a comprehensive overview of higher education financing in SSA, aiming to: (i) explain the fundamental financial problems faced by higher education under the combined pressure of a rapidly growing demand and the scarcity of public resources, and to present the dramatic consequences of this trend on quality; (ii) analyze and compare the current funding policies in SSA countries to provide directions for improvement; and (iii) examine the alternatives to the status quo and the policy tools to diversify resources and to
allocate resources based on performance
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
鏈接 Print version: Bank, World Financing Higher Education in Africa Herndon : World Bank Publications,c2010 9780821383346
主題 Education, Higher -- Economic aspects -- Africa
Electronic books
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