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作者 Sciences, Division on Engineering and Physical
書名 Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans : Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea
出版項 Washington, D.C. : National Academies Press, 1995
©1995
國際標準書號 9780309587280 (electronic bk.)
9780309051378
book jacket
說明 1 online resource (384 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
附註 CLEAN SHIPS CLEAN PORTS CLEAN OCEANS -- Copyright -- Preface -- ORIGIN OF THE STUDY -- SCOPE OF THE STUDY -- STUDY METHODS AND REPORT ORGANIZATION -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Terminology and Acronyms -- TERMINOLOGY -- ACRONYMS -- Contents -- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY -- SOURCES OF VESSEL GARBAGE -- FATES AND EFFECTS OF MARINE DEBRIS -- THE COMMITTEE'S ANALYSIS -- THE VESSEL GARBAGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM -- EDUCATION AND TRAINING -- OVERARCHING ISSUES -- RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GOVERNMENT ACTION -- Legislative Actions -- Improve Management of Vessel Garbage -- National Leadership -- Sustained Education and Training -- Model Programs -- Federal Agency Actions -- Coast Guard -- Department of State (DOS) -- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) -- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) -- U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) -- Maritime Administration (MARAD) -- 1 Dimensions of the Challenge and U.S. Progress -- INTERNATIONAL AND U.S. MANDATES -- Missions of U.S. Government Agencies -- PROGRESS IN U.S. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANNEX V -- Case Histories -- U.S. Navy Compliance -- State Initiatives -- Pilot Programs by Community and Environmental Groups -- Special Situations: The Gulf of Mexico -- THE CHALLENGES AHEAD -- REFERENCES -- 2 Sources, Fates, and Effects of Shipborne Garbage -- IDENTIFYING VESSEL GARBAGE IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT -- SOURCES OF SHIPBORNE GARBAGE -- Recreational Boats -- Commercial Fisheries -- Cargo Ships -- Passenger Day Boats and Ferries -- Small Public Vessels -- Offshore Industry Rigs, Platforms, and Supply Vessels -- Navy Surface Combatant Vessels -- Passenger Cruise Ships -- Research Vessels -- FATES OF SHIPBORNE GARBAGE -- General Observations -- Implications for Special Areas -- Implications for Implementation of Annex V -- ENVIRONMENTAL AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF MARINE DEBRIS -- Human Health Problems
Ecological Effects -- Entanglement of Marine Animals -- Ingestion of Plastics by Marine Species -- Ghost Fishing -- SUMMARY -- REFERENCES -- 3 Implementation -- HAZARD EVOLUTION MODEL -- ADAPTING THE MODEL TO VESSEL GARBAGE MANAGEMENT -- Interventions to Remedy the Hazard -- Technological Innovations -- Organizational and Operational Changes -- Educational Communication -- Government and Private Regulation and Enforcement -- Economic Incentives -- Application of the Model to the Seafarer Communities -- A Final Modification to the Model -- SUMMARY -- REFERENCES -- 4 Elements of an Implementation Strategy -- INTRODUCTION -- ANALYSIS OF INTERVENTIONS -- Recreational Boats and Their Marinas -- Intelligence -- Control -- Analysis of Interventions -- Commercial Fisheries and Their Fleet Ports -- Intelligence -- Control -- Analysis of Interventions -- Cargo Ships and Their Itinerary Ports -- Intelligence -- Control -- Analysis of Interventions -- Passenger Day Boats, Ferries, and Their Terminals -- Intelligence -- Control -- Analysis of Interventions -- Small Public Vessels -- Intelligence -- Control -- Analysis of Interventions -- Offshore Platforms, Rigs, Supply Vessels, and Base Terminals -- Intelligence -- Control -- Analysis of Interventions -- Navy Surface Combatant Vessels and Their Home Ports -- Intelligence -- Control -- Analysis of Interventions -- Passenger Cruise Ships and Their Itinerary Ports -- Intelligence -- Control -- Analysis of Interventions -- Research Vessels and Their Ports of Call -- Intelligence -- Control -- Analysis of Interventions -- REFERENCES -- 5 Integrating Vessel and Shoreside Garbage Management -- PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT -- SHIPBOARD TECHNOLOGIES AND PRACTICES -- Source Reduction -- On-Board Storage -- Shoreside Recycling -- Treatment/Destruction -- Compactors -- Comminuters, Pulpers, and Shredders
Incinerators -- Enhancing Shipboard Technology Development and Use -- GARBAGE MANAGEMENT IN PORTS -- Garbage Management Strategies -- ENHANCING THE VESSEL GARBAGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM -- Quarantine Requirements -- Port Accountability -- Liability -- Who Should Pay? -- SUMMARY -- REFERENCES -- 6 Education and Training -- OVERVIEW OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING -- Types of Education and Training -- Public Awareness Campaigns -- Education and Training for Employees and Visitors -- Management Education and Training -- EXPERIENCE BASE RELATED TO ANNEX V -- Marine Debris Information Offices -- Sea Grant Activities -- Efforts Targeting Boaters -- Port Projects -- Efforts Involving Industry -- Programs Involving Government Fleets and Personnel -- Public Awareness Programs -- International Efforts -- Information Exchange -- A MODEL ANNEX V EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM -- THE FEDERAL ROLE IN ANNEX V EDUCATION AND TRAINING -- Leadership -- Secure Funding -- Innovation -- SUMMARY -- REFERENCES -- 7 Overarching Issues Affecting Annex V Implementation -- THE NEED FOR LEADERSHIP -- U.S. ENFORCEMENT OF ANNEX V -- Options for Improving Annex V Enforcement -- Clarify Extent of Port State Authorities -- Simplify Handling of Civil Cases -- Track and Punish Repeat Violators -- Monitor Garbage Handling Practices -- Surveillance by Government Authorities -- Surveillance by Ship Operators -- Surveillance by Citizens -- ISSUES RELATED TO SPECIAL AREAS -- Implementation of Annex V in the Wider Caribbean -- SUMMARY -- REFERENCES -- 8 Measuring Progress in Implementation of Annex V -- RECORD KEEPING AS A MEASURE OF IMPLEMENTATION -- Assessing Annex V Implementation Internationally -- ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING -- Surveys of Beach Debris -- Monitoring Trends in Biological Impacts -- Monitoring Plastics in the Marine Environment -- Beach Surveys of Plastic Debris
Benthic Surveys of Plastic Debris -- Sampling Sites and Frequencies -- Data Collection and Management -- SUMMARY -- REFERENCES -- 9 National Strategy -- IDENTIFYING AND EVALUATING STRATEGIES AND TACTICS -- STRATEGY FOR EACH MARITIME SECTOR -- Recreational Boats and Their Marinas -- Commercial Fisheries and Their Fleet Ports -- Cargo Ships and Their Itinerary Ports -- Passenger Day Boats, Ferries, and Their Terminals -- Small Public Vessels and Their Home Ports -- Offshore Platforms, Rigs, Supply Vessels, and Their Shore Bases -- Navy Surface Combatant Vessels and Their Home Ports -- Passenger Cruise Ships and Their Itinerary Ports -- Research Vessels and Their Ports of Call -- 10 Federal Action to Improve Implementation of Annex V -- SCIENTIFIC MONITORING -- VESSEL/SHORE INTERFACE -- ON-BOARD TECHNOLOGIES -- ENFORCEMENT -- EDUCATION AND TRAINING -- NATIONAL LEADERSHIP -- APPENDIXES -- APPENDIX A Committee on Shipborne Wastes Biographical Information -- APPENDIX B Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships -- Regulation 1 -- Regulation 2 -- Regulation 3 -- Regulation 4 -- Regulation 5 -- Regulation 6 -- Regulation 7 -- Guidelines for the implementation of Annex V of 73/78 -- Preface -- 1 Introduction and definitions -- 2 Training, education and information -- 3 Minimizing the amount of potential garbage -- 4 Shipboard garbage handling and storage procedures -- 5 Shipboard equipment for processing garbage -- 6 Port reception facilities for garbage -- 7 Ensuring compliance with Annex V -- Appendix Form for reporting alleged inadequacy of port reception facilities for garbage -- Revised Guidelines for the Implementation of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 -- Annex -- Appendix 2 Standard specification for shipboard incinerators -- 1 Scope -- 2 Definitions -- 3 Materials and manufacture -- 4 Operating requirements
5 Operating controls -- 6 Other requirements -- 7 Tests -- 8 Certification -- 9 Marking -- 10 Quality Assurance -- Annex -- A1 - Emission standard for shipboard incinerators with capacities of up to 1,160 kW -- Minimum information to be provided -- A2 - Fire protection requirements for incinerators and waste stowage spaces -- A3 - Incinerators integrated with heat recovery units -- A4 - Flue gas temperature -- Annex -- APPENDIX C The International Law of the Sea: Implications for Annex V Implementation -- FLAG STATE RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES -- COASTAL STATE AUTHORITIES -- PORT STATE CONTROL -- LIMITS ON NATIONAL AUTHORITIES: SAFEGUARDS FOR INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING -- MORE GENERAL OBLIGATIONS -- STRENGTHENING THE FORCE OF IMO RULES -- APPENDIX D Time Line for U.S. Implementation of Annex V -- APPENDIX E Characteristics of Annex V Special Areas -- CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIAL AREAS -- Antarctic Ocean -- The Baltic Sea -- Black Sea -- Caribbean Sea -- Gulf of Mexico -- The Mediterranean Sea -- North Sea -- Persian Gulf -- Red Sea -- REFERENCES -- APPENDIX F Ecological Effects of Marine Debris -- GENERAL EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEMS -- ENTANGLEMENT OF MARINE SPECIES -- INGESTION OF PLASTICS BY MARINE SPECIES -- GHOST FISHING -- DATA ON ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS -- REFERENCES -- Index
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
鏈接 Print version: Sciences, Division on Engineering and Physical Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans : Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Washington, D.C. : National Academies Press,c1995 9780309051378
主題 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships -- (1973);Marine debris -- Management
Electronic books
Alt Author Systems, Commission on Engineering and Technical
Board, Marine
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