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作者 Lo, Ch'in-shun, 1465-1547
書名 The reciprocity principle in the international regulation of economic relations / Changfa Lo
出版項 Taipei : Institute of American Culture, Academia Sinica, c1990
館藏地 索書號 處理狀態 OPAC 訊息 條碼
 人社中心  HF1411 L795    在架上    30560400292378
 歐美所圖書館  337 L7802 1990    在架上    30500100528127
 歐美所圖書館地下室  337 L7802 1990 c.2  在架上  撤架區  30500100984627
 民族所圖書館  HF1411 L6    在架上    30520020372810
 傅斯年圖書館西文圖書區  HF1411 L795 1990    在架上    HPW0056839
 傅斯年圖書館西文圖書區  HF1411 L795 1990 c.2  在架上    30530001058916
 人文社會聯圖曹永和文庫  TSAO HF1411 .L6 1990    在架上    30600620007410
 人文社會聯圖  HF1411 .L6 1990    在架上    30660620000922
Chapter IIntroduction :The Perplexing Nature of Reciprocity1
  Reciprocity in Internation Politics and International Economic Reglations1
  General Ingredients of Reciprocity Contingency and Equivalency4
  Terms Synonymous to or Easily Confused with Reciprocity7
  Reciprocity Serving Different Purposes in International Economic Relations14
  Different Kinds of the Problems and Methods of Studying Reciprocity17
  Dimensions of the problems and Methods of Studying Reciprocity21
Chapter IIA Historical Perspective of Resiprocity 
  Amerian Experiences with Reciproal Trade Prior to 193424
   Historical Background of United Ststes Early Trade Protection24
   Form Trade Protection to Bargaining Features of Reciproal Trade28
   Reviesd Attitude Toward Reciprocuty32
  Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 193434
   The Reciprocal Trade Movement34
   Features of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 193437
   Effect of the eciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 193443
  Reciprocal Trade Practices in Other Countries46
  Reciprocity in the General Agreement49
   From Bilater to Multilateral Reciprocial Arrangements49
   Multi-Tiered Reciprocity in the GATT53
Chapter IIIThe Measurement Issues of Reciprocity56
  Problems of Measuring Reciprocity56
   Ambiguity of the Reciprocity Principle in the GATT56
   Administrative Problems of Messuring Reciprocity58
   Low-Tariff Countries'Position Toward Reciprocity62
  Techniques for Reciprocal Negotiations65
   Various Approaches of Reciprocating Tariff Concessions65
    Principal Supplier rule and Item-by-Item Negotiations65
    Trade Coverage Approach68
    The Acrross-the-Boarb Approach and Linear Reduction75
    Harmonization Reductions83
    Tariff Elimination88
   Reciporcal Elimination of Nontariff Barriers89
    The Myth of Immediate abolition Principle89
    separate Treatment of Nontariff Barriers and CodeReciprocity92
   Recent U.S. Approaches to Reciprocity97
    Sectoral Reciprocity97
    Equal Market Access Approach100
    The Reciprocity-Retaliation Approach103
   Problems of Trade in Services With Respect to Reciprocity109
  Measurement of Reciprocity113
   Proper Approaches to Reciprocity113
    Overall Treatment or Separate Treatment for Tariff and Nontariff Barriers113
    Unilateral,Bilateral, or Multilateral Approaches to Reciprecity116
    Economic and Non-economic Approaches of Assessing Reciprocity121
   Factors Affecting Reciprocal Negiotiations124
    Trade Balance Effect124
    Welfare Effect126
    Employment Effect128
    Balance-of-Payments Effect130
    Infant Industry Ardument131
    Political Factors133
    National Security Considerations135
    Effectieness of Enforcing Commitments139
   Harmonization of Governmental Behavior Approach of Reciprocity141
  Non-discriminatory Treatment in International Economics Relations150
   Conceptual Problems of Equality of Treatment, Non-discrimination, and MFN Treatment150
   Evolution of MFN Treatment Before the Creation of GATT155
    European Practices155
    American Practices158
    Asian and Latin America Practices163
   Equality of Treatment in the Multilateral Context165
    Equality of Treatment as an International Law Principle165
    MFN Commitment in the GAFF170
    Justification of the Principle of Equality of Treatment in the GATT175
  compatibility of Reciprocity Principle and the Principle of Equal Treatment177
   Reciprocity and Unconditional MFN Treatment177
    Compatibility of the Recipprocity Principle and the Principle of Equal Treatment177
    Schemes of Reducing the Level of Incompatibility in the Bilateral Context182
    Schemes of Reducing the Level of Incompatibility in the Multilateral Context187
   Reciprocity and Conditional MFN Treatment189
    Direct Reciprocal Compensation Requirement of the conditional MFN Principle189
    Free-Rider Prevention of the Conditional MFN Principle192
   CATT's Departures from the Unconditional MFN approach196
    New Form of Conditional Approach197
    Discrimination and Reciprocity Issues in Economic Groupings202
    The Grandfather Clause and Reciprocity207
    Discrimination and Reciprocity Facors in Treatment Toward New Members211
   Exceptions to the Equal Treatment Principle for Reasons of Unfair Trade Practices216
   Exceptions to the Equal Treatment Principle for Reasons of Foreign Fair but Injorious Trade Practices220
    Provisions Safeguarding Against Foreign Fair but Injurious Trade Practices and the Reciprocity Factor220
    Non-discriminatory Application of the Safequard Clause223
  MFN Issues and a Reciprocity Formula for East-West Trade228
   Reconcilability of Non-Market Economies and MFN Treatment228
    Ineffevtiveness of MFN Clauses in Dealing with East-West Trade228
    Weakness of GATT Provisions in Dealing with Non-Market Economies232
   Adjustment of the MFN Principle and the Principle of Reciprocity Formulas for East-West Trade234
    Reciprocity Formulas and Adaptation of MFN Treatment for Esat-West Trade234
    Different Standards of Levying Anti-dumping and Countervailing Duties against Goods From Non-Market Economies240
  Proper Interpretation of the MFN Principle244
   Conditional Interpretation of the Unconditional MFN244
   Proper Relations Betweeen MFN and Reciprociy249
  Recognition of Non-Reciprocal Treatment for Less Developed Countries252
   De Favto Inequality and Recognition of the Principlee of Non-Reciprocity252
   Non-Reciprocity and Derogation of the Most-Favored-Nation Clause256
    Recognition of Preferential Treatment in UNCTAD257
    GATT Enabling Clause260
   General vs. Selective Preferences264
  Features of Genernalized Preferences as Non-Reciprocal Arrangements268
   Legal Effects of The Non-Reciprocity Principle Under Preferential Treatment268
    The Nature of the Commitment of Preferences268
    Graduation Form Preferences and the Implicstions for Reciprocity279
   Scope of Preferential Products283
    Product Coverage283
    Rule of Origin Issues286
   Safeguards against Preferences290
  Prospect of Non-Reciprocial Arrangements293
   Re-ecamining the Legality and Scope of Non-Reciprocity 
   Different Treatment for Different Tiers of LDCs :Partly Turning Away form Non-Reciprocity301
Chapter IVReciprocity and Non-Discriminatory Treatment150
Chapter VNon-Reciprocal Arrangements For Less Developed Countries252
Chapter VIConclusion306
 Index315
說明 xi, 318 p. ; 24 cm
系列 Institute of American culture, Academia Sinica. Monographs on American legal studies ; 1
Institute of American culture, Academia Sinica. Monographs on American legal studies ; 1
附註 Includes bibliographical references and index
主題 Reciprocity
International economic relations
Alt Author Academia Sinica Institute of American Culture
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