Author Kronberg, Bengt
Title Surface Chemistry of Surfactants and Polymers
Imprint New York : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2014
©2015
book jacket
Edition 1st ed
Descript 1 online resource (499 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Intro -- Surface Chemistry of Surfactants and Polymers -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- Acronyms -- Chapter 1 Types of Surfactants, their Synthesis, and Applications -- Definition of a Surfactant -- Surfactants Adsorb at Interfaces -- Surfactants Aggregate in Solution and at Interfaces -- All Surfactants Contain at Least One Polar Head Group and at Least One Hydrophobic Tail -- Surface Active Compounds are Plentiful in Nature -- Surfactant Raw Materials may be Based on Petrochemicals or Oleochemicals -- Surfactants are Classified by the Polar Head Group -- Anionics -- Nonionics -- Cationics -- Zwitterionics -- Hydrotropes and Solubilization -- Gemini Surfactants have Special Features -- Synthesis -- Gemini Surfactants are More Efficient -- Cleavable Surfactants are Attractive from an Environmental Point of View -- Background -- Alkali-Labile Surfactants -- Normal Ester Quats -- Betaine Esters -- Acid-Labile Surfactants -- Acetals -- Ortho Esters -- Overview -- Self-Aggregation of a Surfactant may Increase or Decrease the Hydrolysis Rate of Surfactants Containing a Labile Bond -- Increased Hydrolysis Rate-Micellar Catalysis -- Decreased Hydrolysis Rate-Micellar Inhibition -- Use of Polymerizable Surfactants is a Way to Immobilize the Surfactant -- Mode of Surfactant Polymerization -- Position of the Polymerizable Group -- Applications of Polymerizable Surfactants -- Emulsion Polymerization -- Alkyd Emulsions -- Surface Modification -- Surfactant Self-Assemblies -- Special Surfactants Give Extreme Surface Tension Reduction -- Bibliography -- Chapter 2 Environmental and Health Aspects of Surfactants -- Environmental Concern is a Strong Driving Force for Surfactant Development -- The Polar Head Group -- Polyol Surfactants -- Amino Acid-Based Surfactants -- The Hydrocarbon Tail -- Biodegradability
The Rate of Biodegradation Depends on the Surfactant Structure -- Aquatic Toxicity -- Bioaccumulation -- Other Regulatory Concerns -- Dermatological Aspects of Surfactants -- REACH -- Bibliography -- Chapter 3 Two Fundamental Forces in Surface and Colloid Chemistry -- Counterion Binding Affects Self-Assembly and Adsorption of Surfactants and Polymers -- Micelle Formation and Interaction of Micelles -- Adsorption of Surfactants at Nonpolar Surfaces -- Polymer Systems -- Colloidal Stability -- The Hydrophobic Effect is due to the High Energy Density of Water -- Ordering of the Water Leads to an Enthalpy-Entropy Compensation -- The Solubility of Hydrocarbons Increases due to Water Structuring -- Bibliography -- Chapter 4 Surfactant Self-Assembly: General Aspects and Spherical Micelles -- Amphiphilic Molecules Self-Assemble -- Surfactants Start to Form Micelles at the CMC -- CMC Depends on Chemical Structure -- Temperature and Cosolutes Affect CMC -- The Solubility of Surfactants may be Strongly Temperature Dependent -- Driving Forces of Micelle Formation and Thermodynamic Models -- Hydrophobic Interactions -- Phase Separation Model -- Mass Action Law Model -- The Association Process and Counterion Binding can be Monitored by NMR Spectroscopy -- Hydrophobic Compounds can be Solubilized in Micelles -- Micelle Size and Structure -- A Geometrical Consideration of Chain Packing Is Useful -- Kinetics of Micelle Formation -- Surfactants may Form Aggregates in Solvents Other than Water -- General Comments on Amphiphile Self-Assembly -- Bibliography -- Chapter 5 Introduction to Phase Diagrams -- The Phase Rule Regulates the Number of Phases -- Binodal and Spinodal-Metastable and Unstable -- The Gibbs Triangle -- Phase Behavior and the Gibbs Triangle -- Examples of How to Read Phase Diagrams -- Temperature is an Important Parameter
Four Components can be Represented by Pseudo-Phase Diagrams -- Complexes Formed from Species of Opposite Charge Represent Complicated Phase Diagrams -- Bibliography -- Chapter 6 Surfactant Self-Assembly: Beyond the Spherical Micelle -- Micelle Type and Size Vary with Concentration -- Micellar Growth is Different for Different Systems -- The Shape of the Micelles Affects the Rheology of Solutions of Gemini Surfactants -- Surfactant Phases are Built up by Discrete or Infinite Self-Assemblies -- Micellar Solutions can Reach Saturation -- Structures of Liquid Crystalline Phases -- Micellar Cubic Phase -- Hexagonal Phase -- Lamellar Phase -- Bicontinuous Cubic Phases -- Reversed Structures -- How to Determine Phase Diagrams -- Binary Surfactant-Water Phase Diagrams can be Very Different -- Three-Component Phase Diagrams are Complex but have a Direct Bearing on Applications -- Surfactant Geometry and Packing Determine Aggregate Structure: The Packing Parameter is a useful Concept -- Polar Lipids Show the same Phase Behavior as other Amphiphiles -- Liquid Crystalline Phases may form in Solvents other than Water -- Bibliography -- Chapter 7 Surfactants and Polymers Containing Oxyethylene Groups Show a Complex Behavior -- Polyoxyethylene Chains make up the Hydrophilic Part of Many Surfactants and Polymers -- CMC and Micellar Size of Oxyethylene-Based Surfactants are Strongly Temperature Dependent -- Phase Diagrams are Very Different at Different Temperatures -- The L3 or "Sponge" Phase -- Sequence of Self-Assembly Structures as a Function of Temperature -- The Critical Packing Parameter and the Spontaneous Curvature Concepts are Useful Tools -- Clouding is a Characteristic Feature of Polyoxyethylene-Based Surfactants and many Nonionic Polymers -- Clouding is Strongly Dependent on Cosolutes
Physicochemical Properties of Block Copolymers Containing Polyoxyethylene Segments Resemble those of Polyoxyethylene-Based Surfactants -- Temperature Anomalies of Oxyethylene-Based Surfactants and Polymers are Ubiquitous -- Temperature Anomalies are Present in Solvents Other than Water and for Other Polymers -- Bibliography -- Chapter 8 Surfactant Adsorption at Solid Surfaces -- Surfactant Adsorption at Hydrophobic Surfaces -- Nonionic Surfactants at Hydrophobic Surfaces -- Ionic Surfactants at Hydrophobic Surfaces -- Surfactant Adsorption at Hydrophilic Surfaces -- Nonionic Surfactants at Hydrophilic Surfaces -- Ionic Surfactants at Hydrophilic Surfaces -- Surfactant Self-Assemblies at Surfaces Have Various Shapes -- Strong Interaction with the Surface Can Give Epitaxial Effects -- Adsolublization is the Solubilization of Substrates in the Surface Aggregates -- Analysis of Surfactant Adsorption Isotherms -- Model Surfaces and Methods to Determine Adsorption -- Dispersed Systems -- Macroscopic Surfaces -- Bibliography -- Chapter 9 Polymers in Solution -- Polymer Properties are Governed by the Choice of Monomers -- Molecular Weight is an Important Parameter -- Dissolving a Polymer can be a Problem -- The Solubility Parameter is Used to Find the Right Solvent -- Polyelectrolytes are Polymers with Charges -- Polymer Size and Shape are Important Characteristics -- There are Various Classes of Water-Soluble Polymers -- Polymers are Used as Thickeners -- Polymers in Solution Differ from Ordinary Mixtures -- There is a Bridge to Colloidal Systems -- Phase Equilibrium Considerations -- Mixtures of Two Polymers in Water -- Bibliography -- Chapter 10 Surface Active Polymers -- Surface Active Polymers can be Designed in Different Ways -- Polymers with a Hydrophilic Backbone and Hydrophobic Side Chains
Polymers with a Hydrophobic Backbone and Hydrophilic Side Chains -- Polymers with Alternating Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Blocks -- Polymeric Surfactants have Attractive Properties -- Bibliography -- Chapter 11 Adsorption of Polymers at Solid Surfaces -- The Adsorbed Amount Depends on Polymer Molecular Weight -- Solubility has a Profound Influence on the Adsorption -- Adsorption of Polyelectrolytes -- Case I: Polyelectrolyte and the Surface Have Opposite Charge -- Case II: Polyelectrolyte and the Surface have the Same Charge -- Polymer Adsorption is Practically Irreversible -- Polymers can be Desorbed -- The Kinetics of Polymer Adsorption is Limited by Rearrangement -- Measurement of Polymer Adsorption -- Bibliography -- Chapter 12 Surface and Interfacial Tension -- The Surface Tension of Droplets Increases their Pressure -- Surface Tension is Related to Adsorption -- The Surface Tension of Surfactant Solutions -- Nonionic Surfactants -- Ionic Surfactants -- Dynamic Surface Tension -- Impurities in Surfactant Samples can Play a Major Role -- Hydrophobic Impurities -- Hydrophilic Impurities -- Surface Tension of Polymer Solutions -- Interfacial Tension -- Measurement of Surface Tension -- Equilibrium Surface Tension -- Dynamic Surface Tension -- Bibliography -- Chapter 13 Mixed Surfactant Systems -- The Behavior of Surfactant Mixtures Depends on the Relative Surface Activities and on Interactions -- The CMC of an Ideal Mixture has a Simple Relationship to the Individual CMC Values -- Systems of Surfactants with Similar Head Groups Require No Net Interaction -- Many Other Surfactant Systems Require a Net Interaction -- Mixtures of Anionic and Nonionic Surfactants -- Mixtures of Anionic and Cationic Surfactants -- Effect of the β Parameter for Different Ratios between the CMCs
The Concept of Mixed Micelles can also be Applied to Amphiphiles not Forming Micelles
This book gives the reader an introduction to the field of surfactants in solution as well as polymers in solution. Starting with an introduction to surfactants the book then discusses their environmental and health aspects. Chapter 3 looks at fundamental forces in surface and colloid chemistry. Chapter 4 covers self-assembly and 5 phase diagrams. Chapter 6 reviews advanced self-assembly while chapter 7 looks at complex behaviour. Chapters 8 to 10 cover polymer adsorption at solid surfaces, polymers in solution and surface active polymers, respectively. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss adsorption and surface and interfacial tension, while Chapters 13- 16 deal with mixed surfactant systems. Chapter 17, 18 and 19 address microemulsions, colloidal stability and the rheology of polymer and surfactant solutions. Wetting and wetting agents, hydrophobization and hydrophobizing agents, solid dispersions, surfactant assemblies, foaming, emulsions and emulsifiers and microemulsions for soil and oil removal complete the coverage in chapters 20-25
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Kronberg, Bengt Surface Chemistry of Surfactants and Polymers New York : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated,c2014 9781118695968
Subject Surface chemistry.;Surface active agents.;Polymer solutions.;Suspensions (Chemistry)
Electronic books
Alt Author Holmberg, Krister
Lindman, Bjorn