Author Development, Committee on Opportunities in Applied Environmental Research and
Title Opportunities in Applied Environmental Research and Development
Imprint Washington, D.C. : National Academies Press, 1991
©1991
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (185 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Opportunities in Applied Environmental Research and Development -- Copyright -- Preface -- Contents -- Opportunities in Applied Environmental Research and Development -- INTRODUCTION -- REFERENCES -- Appendix A Waste Reduction: Research Needs In Applied Social Sciences -- SUMMARY -- WASTE REDUCTION -- APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH NEEDS -- MEASUREMENT -- INSTITUTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL BARRIERS -- POLICY INCENTIVES -- NONINDUSTRIAL SECTORS: THREE EXAMPLES -- Agriculture -- County and Municipal Governments -- Waste Reduction in Municipal Wastewater Management -- WASTE REDUCTION: RESEARCH NEEDS IN APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES -- INTRODUCTION -- Background -- Previous Studies by the National Research Council -- Workshop Focus -- WASTE REDUCTION -- Current Definitions -- Basic Concepts -- THE NEED FOR APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH -- Barriers to Waste Reduction Research -- Lack of Research Programs and Expertise -- Commitment to Applied Social Science -- DEFINITION AND MEASUREMENT -- Background -- Measurement at the Micro Level -- Measurement at the Aggregate Level -- Measurement Issues -- Measurement Research Needs -- INSTITUTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL BARRIERS -- Background -- Accounting and Financial Analysis -- Management of Innovation -- Organizational Goals and Effectiveness -- Contingency Organization Theory -- Corporate Strategy -- Behavioral Questions in Other Sectors -- Institutional and Behavioral Issues -- Institutional and Behavioral Research Needs -- PUBLIC POLICY INCENTIVES -- Background -- Existing Policy Incentives -- Economics of Waste Reduction -- Implementation -- Issues Concerning Policy Incentives -- Research Needs on Policy Incentives -- NONINDUSTRIAL SECTORS THREE EXAMPLES -- Research Needs in Agriculture -- County and Municipal Research Needs -- Municipal Wastewater Treatment Research Needs -- REFERENCES
WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS AND AGENDA -- WORKSHOP PAPERS -- RESEARCH NEEDS FOR WASTE REDUCTION -- Background -- Previous NRC Studies -- Research Issues in Waste Reduction -- I. DEFINITION AND MEASUREMENT OF WASTE REDUCTION -- II. INSTITUTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL BARRIERS TO WASTE REDUCTION (Background: see esp. papers by Hollod, Todd, Ashford) -- III. PUBLIC POLICY INCENTIVES FOR WASTE REDUCTION (Background: see esp. papers by Curlee, Nichols, McHugh) -- Caveat -- PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY -- ECONOMIC, ENGINEERING, AND POLICY OPTIONS FOR WASTE REDUCTION -- INTRODUCTION: SOME BACKGROUND COMMENTS AND QUESTIONS -- FACTORS INCREASING WASTES GENERATION -- Product Mix and Product Proliferation -- Product Output Specifications -- New Products -- TECHNOLOGIC OPTIONS FOR WASTE REDUCTION -- STIMULI TO WASTE REDUCTION -- External Factors -- Internal Factors -- Governmental Actions -- Responses to Stimuli -- CONCLUDING COMMENTS -- REFERENCES -- ACCOUNTING AND THE ENVIRONMENT: PATCHING THE INFORMATION FABRIC -- Nature of Accounting -- Proposal I-Revisions To Product Costing Systems -- Proposal II: Capital Markets and The Valuation Of Firms-Levelling The Playing Field -- ENDNOTES -- ACCOUNTING AND THE ENVIRONMENT: PATCHING THE INFORMATION FABRIC -- SOURCE REDUCTION: WHAT IS IT AND HOW CAN WE ACCOMPLISH IT? -- INTRODUCTION -- THE DEFINITION OF SOURCE REDUCTION -- THE CASE STUDY -- REPORTING RELEASES -- MEASURING SOURCE REDUCTION -- REGULATION OF SOURCE REDUCTION -- THE REAL ISSUE -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- APPENDIX -- USE OF OFF-SITE RECYCLED SOLVENT -- ON-SITE RECYCLING -- PURCHASE NEW DEGREASER -- PURCHASE CARBON ADSORPTION DEVICE -- SUMMARY OF SOURCE REDUCTION OPTIONS -- REFERENCES -- Appendix B Measuring Change in Ecosystems: Research and Monitorning Strategies -- MEASURING CHANGE IN ECOSYSTEMS: RESEARCH AND MONITORING STRATEGIES -- INTRODUCTION -- PRINCIPAL FINDINGS -- CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES -- WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS -- WORKSHOP PAPERS -- ECOSYSTEM RISK ASSESSMENT: CASE STUDIES OF NATURAL RESOURCE PERTURBATION -- Ecosystem Perturbation -- Case Studies -- Mono Basin -- Glen Canyon -- Relationships To Epa Priorities -- SELECTED DEVELOPMENT NEEDS FOR ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL RISK AT THE COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM LEVEL -- Administrative/Management -- Examples of Existing Programs -- Technical -- BIBLIOGRAPHY -- Appendix C Research to Improve Predictions of Long-Term Chemical Toxicity -- SUMMARY -- RESEARCH TO IMPROVE PREDICTIONS OF LONG-TERM CHEMICAL TOXICITY -- INTRODUCTION -- STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS -- Status and Outlook -- Research and Resource Needs -- Review of SAR Methodologies -- Validation -- Availability of Relevant Toxicological Data -- Treatment of Physicochemical Properties in Models of Long-Term Toxicity -- The Molecular Basis of Toxic Effects -- Incorporation of Functional Criteria Relating to Toxicological End Points -- Development of Methods for Identifying Nongenotoxic Carcinogens -- Funding -- SHORT-TERM IN-VIVO AND IN-VITRO TESTS -- Properties, Uses, and Limitations of STTs -- Research and Resource Needs -- Recruitment and Training of Personnel -- Application to Nonbinary Toxicological End Points -- Coordination of Test Development and Validation -- Assessment of Applicability to Regulatory Uses -- Application To Human Specimens -- Broadening the Spectrum of Toxicological End Points -- Periodic Re-evaluation and Revalidation -- More Adequate Reporting of Relevant Data -- Extrapolation to Humans -- Further Problems and Uses of STTs -- More Effective Coordination of Test Development and Validation -- WHOLE-ANIMAL TESTS -- The Strategies of Whole-Animal Tests -- RESEARCH AND RESOURCE NEEDS -- Validation by Appropriate Studies in Human Subjects -- Funding -- Broadening of Risk Assessment End Points
Re-evaluation of Risk Assessment Models -- Elucidation of Causative Mechanisms of Toxicity -- Grouping of Chemicals by Mechanisms of Toxicity -- Methodologies for Complex Mixtures -- Studies in Animals with Special Phenotypes and Genotypes -- Integrated Analysis of Dose-Response Relationships -- VALIDATING PREDICTIVE TESTS -- Status and Outlook -- Research Needs and Possibilities -- Studies of Heavily Exposed Populations -- International Epidemiological Studies -- Registries of High-Level Exposures -- Improvement of Exposure Measurement and Quantification -- Biological Markers of Exposure and Effect -- Molecular Approaches -- Information on Disease Incidence -- Training -- STRATEGY, POLICY, AND RESOURCES -- Linking and Integrating Evaluative Approaches -- Structure-Activity Relationships -- Short-Term In-Vitro and In-Vivo Tests -- Whole-Animal Tests -- Validation -- Research Needs and Possibilities -- Potency and Severity of Toxic Response -- Exposure Assessment -- Evaluation of Mixtures -- Research Incentives -- Coordination and Planning -- REFERENCES -- RELATED PUBLICATIONS -- WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS -- Appendix D Research Needs in Anticipation of Future Environmental Problems -- SUMMARY -- RESEARCH NEEDS IN ANTICIPATION OF FUTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS -- INTRODUCTION -- Past Anticipatory Research Efforts -- Workshop Focus -- IDENTIFICATION OF ARISING PROBLEMS -- Monitoring Physical Phenomena -- Societal and Economic Monitoring -- Forecasting Long-Term Socioeconomic Trends -- Goal- and Surprise-Oriented Scenario Construction -- Comparative Experience -- Specific Areas That Require Monitoring -- Biotic Monitoring -- Abiotic Monitoring -- Societal Monitoring -- Information Dissemination -- TWO POTENTIAL PROBLEMS ADVANCED MATERIALS AND RENEWABLE ENERGY -- Renewable Energy -- Advanced Materials -- DESIGN FOR AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH PROGRAM
Objectives of an Anticipatory Research Program -- Implementation -- Institutional Arrangements -- Environmental Scientists and Engineers -- Environmental Research and Development Funding -- ASSEMBLING AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM -- CONCLUSIONS -- WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS -- Appendix E Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources -- STAFF
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Development, Committee on Opportunities in Applied Environmental Research and Opportunities in Applied Environmental Research and Development Washington, D.C. : National Academies Press,c1991 9780309046985
Subject Environmental protection -- Research.;Pollution -- Research -- United States.;Environmental policy -- United States
Electronic books
Alt Author Council, National Research
Studies, Division on Earth and Life
Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources