Author Gwilliam, Ken
Title Africa's Transport Infrastructure : Mainstreaming Maintenance and Management
Imprint Herndon : World Bank Publications, 2011
©2011
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (529 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
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Series Directions in Development
Directions in Development
Note Intro -- Half Title Page -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- About the AICD -- Series Foreword -- About the Authors -- Acknowledgments -- Abbreviations -- Chapter 1 The Legacy of History -- Political History: Colonialism and Independence -- A Consequence of History: A Distorted Transport Sector -- The Outcome: High Costs, Poor Service, and Reduced Trade -- Country Diversity and Uneven Economic Performance -- A New-Millennium Renaissance -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 2 Roads: The Burden of Maintenance -- The Road Network -- Road Infrastructure Performance -- Institutions: Ongoing Reforms -- Road Spending: A Problem of Execution -- Freight Transport: Too Expensive -- The Way Forward -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 3 Railways: Not Pulling Their Weight -- Africa's Rail History: Opening Up the Continent -- A Sparse and Disconnected Network -- Investment and Maintenance -- The Market -- Freight Tariffs: Increasingly Competitive -- Why Are Railways Uncompetitive? -- Institutional Arrangements -- Operational Performance -- Financial Performance -- The Way Forward -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 4 Airports and Air Transport: Policies for Growth -- Airport Infrastructure -- Operations -- The Way Forward -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 5 Ports and Shipping: Moving toward Modern Management Structures -- Coping with Rapidly Changing Trade Patterns -- The Institutional and Regulatory Framework -- Infrastructure Development -- Performance, Cost, and Quality -- The Way Forward -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 6 Urban Transport: Struggling with Growth -- Infrastructure: Roads -- Infrastructure: Rails -- Institutions -- Services -- Fares -- Financing and Subsidies -- Regulation -- The Way Forward -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 7 Spending to Improve Connectivity -- The Expenditure Model in Brief -- A Detailed Look at the Model's Inputs
Applying the Model -- Outputs of the Model -- Insights from the Connectivity Analysis -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 8 Financing: Filling the Gaps -- Expenditures -- What Can Be Done about the Shortfalls? -- The Residual Funding Gap -- The Way Forward -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 9 Governance: The Key to Progress -- The Context of National Governance -- Traditions and Attitudes -- Institutions -- Capacity -- The Way Forward -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 10 Conclusion: An Agenda for Action -- Critical Transport Policy Issues -- Improving Governance -- Expenditure Requirements -- Notes -- References -- Appendix 1 Introduction -- Appendix 1a AICD Background Documents Relevant to the Transport Sector -- Appendix 1b Country Typology for Study Countries -- Reference -- Appendix 2 Roads -- Appendix 2a Road Data Sources and Analysis -- Appendix 2b Basic Country Data for the Set of 40 Countries -- Appendix 2c Classified Road Network Length for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2d Road Network Densities for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2e Road Network Length by Surface Class and Network Type for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2f Average Annual Daily Traffic by Road Type for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2g Distribution of Networks by Traffic Level for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2h Vehicle Utilization of Roads by Surface Class and by Passenger and Freight for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2i Classified Road Network Condition by Network Type for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2j Road Accident Rates for Countries in Africa -- Appendix 2k Road Maintenance Initiative Institutional Indicators, September 2007 -- Appendix 2l Selected Standards by Network Type, Surface Class, and Traffic Level for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2m Preservation Requirements for Securing the Custom Standard over a 20-Year Period for 40 Countries
Appendix 2n Preservation Requirements for Securing the Optimal Standard over a 20-Year Period for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2o Custom Standard 20-Year Preservation Needs by Work Type for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2p Optimal Standard 20-Year Preservation Needs by Work Type for 40 Countries -- References -- Appendix 3 Rail Transport -- Appendix 3a Rail Networks in Africa -- Appendix 3b Production Structure of African Railways, Average 1995-2005 -- Appendix 3c Rail Passenger Traffic -- Appendix 3d Pricing and Institutions -- Appendix 3e Factor Productivity -- Railway Names -- Reference -- Appendix 4 Airports and Air Transport -- Appendix 4a Data Sources for Air Transport Analysis -- Appendix 4b Airports -- Appendix 4c City Pairs Served -- Appendix 4d Installation of Ground-Based Navigational Aids in Africa -- Appendix 4e Total Capacity Supplied -- Appendix 4f Costs of Airport Construction versus Rehabilitation -- Appendix 4g Domestic Air Transport Markets in Africa, 2007 -- Appendix 4h Market Concentration, 2007 -- Appendix 4i Trends in Aircraft Age -- Appendix 4j Trends in Aircraft Size -- Appendix 4k Safety Assessments, 2007 -- Appendix 5 Ports and Shipping -- Appendix 5a Annual Traffic -- Appendix 5b Institutional Characteristics -- Appendix 5c Infrastructure Facilities -- Appendix 5d Cargo-Handling Performance Indicators -- Appendix 5e Port Access and Landside Quality -- Appendix 5f Average Port Costs and Charges -- Appendix 6 Expenditure Needs -- Appendix 6 Costs of Achieving Targets of Pragmatic Scenario, by Expenditure Purpose -- Appendix 7 Financing -- Appendix 7a Transport Spending and Finance Sources, by Country -- Appendix 7b Potential Efficiency Gains -- Appendix 7c Agency and Total Social Benefits of Timely Road Maintenance -- Appendix 7d Closing the Gap -- Note -- Index -- Back Cover
This book presents and analyzes the results of a comprehensive collection of data on the extent and condition of transport infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa, identifies the reasons for poor performance, and estimates future financing needs.The transport facilities of Sub-Saharan Africa were built primarily for the colonial exploitation of mineral and agricultural resources. The chief goal of road and rail networks was to link mines, plantations, and other sites for the exploitation and transformation on natural resources to ports, rather than to provide general connectivity within the region. The road network of 1.75 million kilometers exhibits a low density with respect to population. Its average spatial density is very low by world standards. The network carries low average traffic levels. Even so, because most African countries have a low GDP, the fiscal burden of the network is the highest among world regions, maintenance is underfinanced, and road conditions are on average poor, while road accident rates are very high. Attempts to improve the financing of maintenance through ?second generation road funds? have met with some success, but there remain serious weaknesses in implementation. Road freight transport is fragmented, but cartelized, with high rates and high profits.Railways were also built mainly as for the exportation of minerals and crops. With the exception of two or three very specialized bulk mineral lines, the traffic volumes are low, and the railways have been in financial decline since the 1960s. Concessioning of the lines to private operators has improved performance, but governments often impose unachievable requirements on the companies, and investment remains inadequate for long-term sustainability.Most of the 260 airports that provide year-round commercial service in Sub-Saharan Africa have adequate runway capacity,
though some of the larger airports suffer from a shortage of terminal capacity. More than a quarter of the runways are in marginal or poor condition, and air traffic control and navigation facilities are below international standards. Though airport charges are high, few airports are truly financially sustainable. Three national carriers are quite successful, but most are small and barely sustainable. Protection persists in the domestic and intercontinental markets, but the international market in the region has been effectively liberalized. The safety record is poor.Most ports are small by international standards. Many are still publicly owned and suffer from inadequate equipment and poor productivity. Only a few highly specialized ports, including private ports integrated with the extraction companies, meet the highest international standards Costs and charges are high. But there is a trend toward concessioning of facilities to large groups specializing in international container terminals and port operations. Fortunately the shipping market is now deregulated.Urban transport suffers from some infrastructure deficiencies, particularly in the condition of urban roads. But the main problems of the sector are associated with the fragmented and poorly regulated nature of most urban bus markets. Finance for large buses is very difficult to obtain. In all modes the situation is made worse by failures of governance in both the provision and regulation of infrastructure. The overall deficit in financing for infrastructure is estimated using a model based on the application of hypothesized standards of connectivity for all modal networks and facilities. Once the amount of infrastructure needed to meet those standards was calculated, these ?requirements? were compared with existing stocks and the costs of making the transition over a ten-year period were
calculated. A ?base? scenario used standards similar to those pertaining in developed regions, while a ?pragmatic? scenario applied lower standards. In a separate exercise, the actual average expenditures on transport infrastructure from all sources were researched. This allowed the funding gap to be deduced by subtraction. The results showed that, excluding official development assistance, no country spent enough to meet the base standard, and that even with aid there remained substantial deficits in maintenance funding in many countries, with the worst situations found in the low-income, politically fragile group of countries
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Gwilliam, Ken Africa's Transport Infrastructure : Mainstreaming Maintenance and Management Herndon : World Bank Publications,c2011 9780821384565
Subject Transportation -- Africa.;Infrastructure (Economics) -- Africa
Electronic books