Author Torbacke, Marika
Title Lubricants : Introduction to Properties and Performance
Imprint New York : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2014
©2014
book jacket
Edition 1st ed
Descript 1 online resource (219 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Intro -- Lubricants -- Contents -- Preface -- List of Symbols -- List of Tables -- Part 1 Lubricant Properties -- 1 Introduction to Tribology -- 1.1 Tribological Contacts -- 1.1.1 Macroscale Contacts -- 1.1.2 Microscale Contacts -- 1.2 Friction -- 1.2.1 The Coefficient of Friction -- 1.2.2 Lubrication Regimes -- 1.3 Wear -- 1.3.1 Wear Rate -- 1.4 Lubrication of the Tribological System -- 1.4.1 The Purposes of Lubricants -- 1.4.2 Reducing Friction and Protecting against Wear -- 1.4.3 Semi-Solid Lubricants -- 1.4.4 Solid Lubricants and Dry Lubricants -- References -- 2 Lubricant Properties -- 2.1 Performance Properties -- 2.1.1 Viscosity -- 2.1.2 Low and High Temperature Properties of Lubricants -- 2.1.3 Air and Water Entrainment Properties -- 2.1.4 Thermal Properties -- 2.2 Long Life Properties -- 2.2.1 Total Acid Number (TAN) -- 2.2.2 Total Base Number (TBN) -- 2.2.3 Oxidation Stability -- 2.2.4 Hydrolytic Stability -- 2.2.5 Corrosion Inhibition Properties -- 2.3 Environmental Properties -- 2.3.1 Environmentally Adapted Lubricants -- 2.3.2 Market Products with a Reduced Environmental Impact -- 2.4 Summary of Analyses -- References -- 3 Base Fluids -- 3.1 General Hydrocarbon Chemistry -- 3.2 Base Fluid Categorization -- 3.3 The Refining Process of Crude Oils -- 3.3.1 The Refining Process -- 3.3.2 Influence of the Refining Process on the Oil Properties -- 3.4 Base Fluids Originating from Crude Oil -- 3.4.1 Paraffinic Base Oils -- 3.4.2 Naphthenic Base Oils -- 3.4.3 White Oils -- 3.4.4 Very High Viscosity Index Base Oils -- 3.4.5 Polyalphaolefins -- 3.4.6 Gas-to-Liquid Base Fluids -- 3.4.7 Re-Refined Base Oils -- 3.5 Base Fluids Originating from Renewable Raw Materials -- 3.5.1 Vegetable Oils (Natural Esters) -- 3.5.2 Synthetic Esters -- 3.6 Nonconventional Synthetic Base Fluids -- 3.7 Properties of Base Fluids -- References -- 4 Additives
4.1 Fundamental Concepts and Processes -- 4.1.1 Atoms and Reactions -- 4.1.2 Intermolecular Forces -- 4.1.3 Chemical Potential -- 4.1.4 Surfaces -- 4.1.5 Mass Transfer -- 4.1.6 Adsorption -- 4.1.7 Chemical Characteristics of Surface Active Additives -- 4.2 Additive Exploration -- 4.3 Surface Active Adsorbing Additives -- 4.3.1 Corrosion Inhibitors -- 4.3.2 Friction Modifiers -- 4.3.3 Antiwear Additives -- 4.3.4 Extreme Pressure Additives -- 4.3.5 Activation of Antiwear and Extreme Pressure Additives -- 4.3.6 Competition for Surface Sites by Surface Active Additives -- 4.4 Interfacial Surface Active Additives -- 4.4.1 Defoamers -- 4.4.2 Emulsifiers and Demulsifiers -- 4.5 Physically Bulk Active Additives -- 4.5.1 Viscosity Modifiers -- 4.5.2 Pour Point Depressants -- 4.5.3 Dispersants -- 4.6 Chemically Bulk Active Additives -- 4.6.1 Detergents -- 4.6.2 Antioxidants -- 4.7 Additive Summary -- References -- Part 2 Lubricant Performance -- 5 Formulating Lubricants -- 5.1 General Aspects of Development -- 5.1.1 Formulations -- 5.1.2 Development Work -- 5.1.3 Material Compatibility -- 5.1.4 Miscibility -- 5.1.5 Interactions in a Lubricated Contact -- 5.2 Quality of the Lubricated Tribological Contact -- 5.2.1 Lubricant Film Regime -- 5.2.2 Maintaining a High Quality Contact -- 5.3 Hydraulics -- 5.3.1 Description of a Hydraulic System -- 5.3.2 Formulating Hydraulic Oils -- 5.4 Gears -- 5.4.1 Description of Gears -- 5.4.2 Formulating Gear Oils -- 5.5 Combustion Engines -- 5.5.1 Description of Combustion Engines -- 5.5.2 Formulating Combustion Engine Oils -- References -- 6 Tribological Test Methods -- 6.1 Field, Bench and Component Tests -- 6.2 Model Tests -- 6.2.1 Strategy for Selecting and Planning a Model Test -- 6.3 Lubricant Film Thickness Measurements -- 6.3.1 Electrical Methods -- 6.3.2 Optical Interferometry Method
6.4 Tribological Evaluation in Mixed and Boundary Lubrication -- 6.4.1 The Pin-on-Disc Tribotest -- 6.4.2 The Reciprocating Tribotest -- 6.4.3 The Twin Disc Tribotest -- 6.4.4 The Rotary Tribotest -- 6.5 Selection of Model Tests to Simulate Real Contacts -- 6.5.1 Hydraulics -- 6.5.2 Gears -- 6.5.3 Combustion Engines -- 6.6 Summary of Tribotest Methods -- References -- 7 Lubricant Characterization -- 7.1 General Characterization Concepts -- 7.1.1 Planning -- 7.1.2 Basic Mixing Theory -- 7.1.3 Sampling -- 7.1.4 Diluting the Sample -- 7.1.5 Collecting Analysis Data -- 7.1.6 Calculations and Evaluation -- 7.2 Condition Analyses of Lubricants -- 7.3 Nonused Oil Characterization -- 7.3.1 Development -- 7.3.2 Production -- 7.3.3 Application Examples -- 7.4 Used Oil Characterization -- 7.4.1 Selection of Analyses -- 7.4.2 Analysis Examples of Selected Applications -- 7.5 Summary of Used Oil Analyses -- References -- 8 Surface Characterization -- 8.1 Surface Characterization of Real Components -- 8.1.1 Examination of Nonused Surfaces -- 8.1.2 Examination of Used Surfaces -- 8.1.3 Characteristics of Application Examples -- 8.2 Microscopy Techniques -- 8.2.1 Visual Inspection -- 8.2.2 Light Optical Microscopy (LOM) -- 8.2.3 Optical Interference Microscopy -- 8.2.4 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) -- 8.2.5 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) -- 8.2.6 Focused Ion Beam (FIB) -- 8.2.7 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) -- 8.3 Surface Measurement -- 8.3.1 Statistical Surface Parameters -- 8.3.2 Contacting Stylus Profiler -- 8.3.3 Microscopy Techniques -- 8.4 Hardness Measurement -- 8.4.1 Macro and Micro Hardness -- 8.4.2 Nanoindentation -- 8.5 Surface Analysis Techniques -- 8.5.1 Selected Methods -- 8.5.2 Analysis Performance Parameters and Terminology -- 8.5.3 Depth Profiling and Chemical Mapping -- 8.5.4 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS)
8.5.5 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) -- 8.5.6 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) -- 8.5.7 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) -- 8.5.8 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy -- 8.6 Summary of Surface Characterization Methods -- 8.6.1 Microscopy and Surface Measurement -- 8.6.2 Surface Analysis -- References -- Index -- Supplemental Images
Those working with tribology often have a background in mechanical engineering, while people working with lubricant development have a chemistry/chemical engineering background. This means they have a tradition of approaching problems in different ways. Today's product development puts higher demands on timing and quality, requiring collaboration between people with different backgrounds. However, they can lack understanding of each other's challenges as well as a common language, and so this book aims to bridge the gap between these two areas. Lubricants: Introduction to Properties and Performance provides an easy to understand overview of tribology and lubricant chemistry. The first part of the book is theoretical and provides an introduction to tribological contact, friction, wear and lubrication, as well as the basic concepts regarding properties and the most commonly made analyses on lubricants. Base fluids and their properties and common additives used in lubricants are also covered. The second part of the book is hands-on and introduces the reader to the actual formulations and the evaluation of their performance. Different applications and their corresponding lubricant formulations are considered and tribological test methods are discussed. Finally used oil characterisation and surface characterisation are covered which give the reader an introduction to different methods of characterising used oils and surfaces, respectively. Key features: Combines chemistry and tribology of lubricants into one unified approach Covers the fundamental theory, describing lubricant properties as well as base fluids and additives Contains practical information on the formulations of lubricants and evaluates their performance Considers applications of lubricants in hydraulics, gears and combustion engines Lubricants: Introduction to Properties and Performance
is a comprehensive reference for industry practitioners (tribologists, lubricant technicians, and lubricant chemists, etc) and is also an excellent source of information for graduate and undergraduate students
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Torbacke, Marika Lubricants : Introduction to Properties and Performance New York : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated,c2014 9781118799734
Subject Lubrication and lubricants
Electronic books
Alt Author Kassfeldt, Elisabet
Rudolphi, �sa Kassman