LEADER 00000nam  2200337   4500 
001    AAI3235258 
005    20071023113110.5 
008    071023s2006                        eng d 
020    9780542894763 
035    (UMI)AAI3235258 
040    UMI|cUMI 
100 1  Kopperud, Royal James 
245 10 Infiltration of particulate matter in a residence: 
       Measurements, models, and instruments 
300    123 p 
500    Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 67-
       09, Section: B, page: 5318 
500    Adviser: Lynn M. Hildemann 
502    Thesis (Ph.D.)--Stanford University, 2006 
520    This study determines the fraction of indoor PM 
       originating from outdoor sources using an air-exchange 
       mass balance model and a chemical mass balance model. We 
       measured indoor and outdoor particle concentrations using 
       gravimetric filter samplers, laser particle counters, and 
       nephelometers, and characterized the infiltration rate 
       using sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer gas in a single-
       family home in Redwood City, California. The filter 
       samples provided mass concentration data and samples for 
       chemical analysis. We quantified the concentration of 
       thirteen elements found in the PM using microwave acid 
       extraction and inductively-coupled plasma mass 
       spectrometry. From our mass balance models, we found that 
       during vigorous cleaning or other indoor activities nearly
       all of the PM5 and most of the PM2.5 originated from 
       indoor sources. Even when vigorous activity was absent, 
       one quarter to one half of the PM2.5 and half of the PM5 
       originated from indoor sources 
520    We encountered systematic errors in the performance of the
       laser particle counters and the nephelometers when 
       compared with the gravimetric methods. Estimates of the PM
       mass concentration calculated from the laser particle 
       counter results systematically underpredicted the 
       concentrations measured by the gravimetric reference 
       method. In addition, the nephelometers showed a systematic
       bias in the measurement of scattering efficiency for 
       indoor PM compared to outdoor PM. Our study then proposed 
       several model aerosols with realistic index of refraction 
       and particle density values. From Mie theory, we 
       calculated the light-scattering properties of the model 
       aerosols. We used the resulting scattering functions, 
       along with the optical properties of the instruments, to 
       simulate the measurement response to each of the model 
       aerosols and to recalibrate the laser particle counter 
       size results. Our recalibration improved the accuracy of 
       the laser particle counter mass estimate, nearly doubling 
       the fraction of the measured mass explained by the optical
       estimate. Finally, we used the model aerosol optical 
       properties and the corrected particle size data to 
       simulate the response of the nephelometer to each model 
       aerosol. By comparing these results to the field 
       measurements, the simulated nephelometer response provides
       a novel method of evaluating the apparent index of 
       refraction of the real aerosol 
590    School code: 0212 
590    DDC 
650  4 Engineering, Civil 
650  4 Engineering, Environmental 
690    0543 
690    0775 
710 20 Stanford University 
773 0  |tDissertation Abstracts International|g67-09B 
856 40 |uhttp://pqdd.sinica.edu.tw/twdaoapp/servlet/