LEADER 00000nam  2200373   4500 
001    AAI3420834 
005    20101115112556.5 
008    101115s2010    ||||||||||||||||| ||eng d 
020    9781124179407 
035    (UMI)AAI3420834 
040    UMI|cUMI 
100 1  Hamerman, Eric 
245 10 Superstitious choice and the placebo effect: Consumer 
       products as instruments of control 
300    126 p 
500    Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 71-
       09, Section: A, page:  
500    Adviser: Gita Johar 
502    Thesis (Ph.D.)--Columbia University, 2010 
520    When people want an event to unfold in a certain manner, 
       but perceive that they are unable to facilitate this 
       result due to either circumstance or a low level of self-
       efficacy, they may be tempted to resort to irrational 
       measures in order to increase the likelihood of success. 
       This dissertation contains two essays that examine methods
       by which individuals attempt to exert control over events 
       with uncertain outcomes, as well as the consumer behavior 
       implications of these actions 
520    The first essay will focus on superstitious behavior. When
       individuals desire a specific outcome (such as their 
       favorite team winning a ballgame), and there is no 
       realistic avenue to achieve this result, they are likely 
       to resort to superstitious inferences that are based on 
       previously learned experiences (e.g., "the last time I 
       ordered Dr. Pepper, my team won"). In six studies, 
       individuals were presented with the opportunity to impact 
       an outside event (e.g., "my team is playing a match right 
       now") by engaging in superstitious behavior 
520    The likelihood that such superstitious behavior would 
       occur varies with the desire to impact the event outcome. 
       As self-affirmation and generalized self-efficacy increase,
       this desire is reduced along with the likelihood of 
       superstitious behavior, indicating that the phenomenon of 
       superstition is unique from conditioning (in which 
       associating a product with a successful outcome would 
       simply lead to increased liking, regardless of one's level
       of self-efficacy or motivation) 
520    Although individuals recognize that superstitious behavior
       is widely practiced, they do not acknowledge that 
       superstition is driving their behavior at the moment it is
       performed. However, after they make a superstitious choice,
       individuals are more likely to predict that the event they
       wish to affect will unfold in a favorable manner 
520    The second essay extends the idea of controlling an 
       outcome through product choice to the placebo effect. Just
       as a medical patient might expect a sugar pill to 
       facilitate pain relief and then report diminished levels 
       of pain, individuals may also find that consuming a 
       specific product (e.g., an energy drink) can impact future
       behavioral performance (e.g., test-taking). Two studies 
       demonstrate that perceived difficulty of the task 
       interacts with the type of placebo treatment (positive or 
       negative expectation). After a placebo treatment, 
       perceiving the task as difficult (vs. neutral) reduces 
       performance, but the reverse occurs after a nocebo 
       (negative placebo) treatment. It is hypothesized that a 
       combination of a nocebo treatment and a difficult task is 
       perceived as threatening, leading to a compensatory 
       response that results in increased effort and greater 
590    School code: 0054 
650  4 Business Administration, Marketing 
650  4 Psychology, Behavioral 
690    0338 
690    0384 
710 2  Columbia University 
773 0  |tDissertation Abstracts International|g71-09A 
856 40 |uhttp://pqdd.sinica.edu.tw/twdaoapp/servlet/