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Author 70, Task Committee on Revision of Manual
Title Evaporation, Evapotranspiration, and Irrigation Water Requirements
Imprint Reston : American Society of Civil Engineers, 2016
©2016
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (0 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Series Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice Ser
Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice Ser
Note Intro -- Contents -- Acknowledgments -- Preface -- Notation -- Part 1: Basic Concepts -- Chapter 1: Introduction and History -- 1.1 Introduction to Second Edition -- Objectives -- Chapter Content -- 1.2 Development of ET and CU Studies in the United States -- Consumptive Use and Evapotranspiration -- Historical Background (United States) -- Evolution of ET Estimating Methods -- 1.3 Revised Edition -- Chapter 2: Evaporation and Evapotranspiration Processes -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 The Water Budget -- 2.3 The Energy Budget -- 2.4 Controlling Factors -- Weather -- Vegetation -- Soil Factors -- Water Bodies -- Management Factors -- 2.5 Estimating Concepts -- Evaporation from Water Surfaces -- Evaporation from Soils -- Reference Evapotranspiration -- Crop Factors (Coefficients) -- 2.6 Measurement Methods -- Change in Soil Water -- Lysimetry -- Bowen Ratio Energy Balance (BREB) -- Eddy Covariance -- Water Balance -- Remote Sensing Energy Balance -- Chapter 3: Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Physical Properties of Water, Water Vapor, and Air -- Liquid Water -- Water Vapor -- Air -- Standard Atmosphere (Lower Atmosphere) -- 3.3 Soil Properties -- 3.4 Soil-Water System -- Energy State of Soil Water -- Soil-Water Characteristic Curve -- Flow of Water in Soils -- General Soil Water Properties -- Soil-Plant Interactions -- 3.5 Vegetative (Crop) Properties -- Foliage Factors -- Root Factors -- Chapter 4: Energy Balance -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Energy Balance -- 4.3 Net Radiation -- Solar Radiation -- Solar Radiation Estimation -- Long-Wave Radiation -- Net Radiation Measurement and Estimation -- 4.4 Soil Heat Flux Density -- Soil Heat Flux Density Measurement -- Soil Heat Flux Density Estimation -- Chapter 5: Surface-Energy and Air-Mass Interactions and the Concept of Reference ET -- 5.1 Introduction
5.2 Weather and Surface Effects on Conversion of Energy to Latent Heat Flux -- 5.3 Standardization of the Vegetative Cover -- Potential Evaporation -- Reference Evapotranspiration -- Summary -- Chapter 6: Evaporation from Water Surfaces -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Methods of Estimating Water Surface Evaporation -- Pan Evaporation -- Water Budget Procedure -- Aerodynamic Method (Mass Transfer) -- Energy Balance Method -- Combination Methods -- Simulation Studies -- 6.3 Example Applications of Evaporation Estimation Methods and Measurements -- Evaporation from a Shallow Lake -- Evaporation from Deep Lakes -- Evaporation from a River-Reservoir System -- Evaporation from Reservoirs -- 6.4 Summary of Methods for Estimating Evaporation from Water Bodies -- Small Water Bodies -- Large Water Bodies -- Part 2: Evapotranspiration from Land Surfaces -- Chapter 7: Water and Energy Balance Components for Measurement and Estimation -- 7.1 Introduction to Chapters 7-12 -- 7.2 Volumetric Measurements for Estimating Land Surface ET -- Soil Water Balance -- 7.3 Mass Balance Methods -- Tanks and Lysimeters -- Typical Problems -- 7.4 Energy Balance Methods-Bowen Ratio -- Typical Problems with Bowen Ratio Systems -- Example Applications for Bowen Ratio Systems -- 7.5 Mass Transfer Method Using Eddy Covariance -- 7.6 Fetch Requirements for Boundary Layer Measurement -- Fetch Requirements for Weather Stations -- 7.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of ET Measurement Methods -- 7.8 Combined Energy Balance and Mass Transfer Methods -- Mass Transfer with Direct Use of Aerodynamic Expressions -- Sensible Heat from Temperature Differences -- Integrated Stability Functions -- Chapter 8: Reference Crop ET -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 The Penman-Monteith Equation -- 8.3 Aerodynamic and Surface Parameters for the PM Equation -- Effective Leaf-Area Index -- Stability Correction
8.4 Reference ETrefKc Approach -- Reference ET Types and Definitions -- Penman-Monteith as a Definition for Reference ET -- Reference ET Calculations -- Standardization of the PM Equation for ETref -- Preferred Time Steps for Reference ET Calculation -- 1985 Hargreaves-Samani Equation -- ETo Software Programs -- 8.5 Missing or Bad Weather Data -- Minimum Data Requirements -- Estimates of Missing Humidity Data -- Estimates of Missing Solar Radiation Data -- Missing Wind Speed Data -- Missing Maximum or Minimum Air Temperature Data -- Gridded Weather Data from Climate and Land Process Models -- 8.6 Reference ET by Analogy or Association -- Evaporimeters and Atmometers -- Pan Coefficients -- Atmometers -- Chapter 9: Evaporation from Soil -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 The Evaporation Process -- 9.3 Diurnal Effects and Redistribution of Soil Water -- 9.4 Stage 1 Evaporation -- 9.5 Stage 2 Evaporation -- 9.6 Evaporation Models -- Square Root of Time (SRT) Model -- Crop Coefficient-Based Evaporation Model -- The FAO-56 Evaporation Model -- 9.7 Relationships between Evaporation and Transpiration -- 9.8 Water Balance of the Evaporation Layer -- 9.9 Example Estimates of Evaporation -- Comparisons of Models with a Weighing Lysimeter -- Comparison of the FAO-56 Model with HYDRUS-1D -- 9.10 Summary -- Chapter 10: Crop Coefficient Method -- 10.1 Introduction -- 10.2 The Crop Coefficient -- Crop Coefficient Variables -- Field-Scale Applications -- Small Expanses of Vegetation -- 10.3 Crop (Vegetation Cover) Coefficients -- Kc and ET Terminology -- Basal Crop Coefficients -- Water Stress Adjustment -- Mean Crop Coefficients -- 10.4 FAO Grass-Based Crop Coefficients -- Adjustment of Kc for Climate -- Estimation of Initial Kcini with the FAO Mean Kc Procedure -- Lengths of Growth Stages -- An FAO Kc Example
Use of the FAO Basal Crop Coefficient Procedure in Calculations -- 10.5 Alfalfa-Based Crop Coefficients -- Procedure -- An Alfalfa-Based Example -- Expression of Kc Curves and the Time Basis -- 10.6 Estimates of Kc Curves for Natural and Agricultural Vegetation -- 10.7 Landscape Coefficients -- The Vegetation Coefficient -- Density Factor -- Microclimate Factor -- Managed Stress Factor -- Actual ET from Landscapes -- Impact of Canopy Wetting and Irrigation Frequency on KL -- Comparisons against Recent Measurements of KL -- 10.8 Estimates of Kc during Wintertime and Nongrowing Seasons -- Types of Surface Conditions -- Estimated Wintertime Evaporation -- 10.9 Summary -- Chapter 11: Direct Penman-Monteith and Aerodynamic Energy Balance Equations -- 11.1 Introduction -- Advantages -- Disadvantages and Challenges -- 11.2 Common Forms of Resistance-Based Equations -- The Single-Layer Penman-Monteith Equation -- The Multilayer (Interactive) Resistance-Based Model -- The Two-Source (Patch) Resistance-Based Model -- 11.3 Challenges with Types of Resistance-Based Models -- 11.4 Parameters for the Penman-Monteith for Equivalency with More Complicated Models -- Net Radiation -- 11.5 Comparative Model Performance -- 11.6 Roughness Length and Zero Plane Displacement -- General Parameters -- Determinations from Wind Profile Measurements -- 11.7 Bulk Surface (Stomatal) Resistance -- Resistance and Leaf Area -- General Bulk Surface Resistance Values -- Example of Applying the Penman-Monteith to a Dry Surface -- 11.8 Evaporation from Soil and Surface Resistance -- 11.9 Weather Measurements for Direct Application of the Penman-Monteith and AFIB Methods and Reference ET Calculation -- Basic Measurements -- Adjustments of Noncharacteristic Weather Data -- 11.10 Example Applications of the Single-Layer Penman-Monteith -- Half-Hourly Calculations
Daily Calculations under Conditions of Soil Water Stress -- Other Applications of the Single-Layer Penman-Monteith Model -- Examples of Applications of Multilayer Penman-Monteith Models -- 11.11 Applications of Evapotranspiration Models Using Remote Sensing Inputs -- 11.12 Measurement and Estimation of ET on Sloping Lands -- 11.13 Evaporation of Intercepted Rainfall -- Chapter 12: Regional Estimates of Evapotranspiration -- 12.1 Introduction -- 12.2 Theory -- 12.3 Applications -- Complimentary Approach to Estimating ET -- Application of Energy Balance Models to Forests and Grasslands -- Application of Energy Balance Models to Regional Cultivated Lands -- Approximation of Monthly Streamflow for Ungauged Watersheds -- Data Sources in Cultivated Areas -- Data Sources in Natural Vegetation -- Gridded Weather Data -- Part 3: Water Requirement Estimates -- Chapter 13: Selection of Appropriate Estimating Method -- 13.1 Introduction -- 13.2 Time frame and Required Accuracy -- 13.3 Input Data Collection, Screening, and Processing -- Solar Radiation -- Humidity and Air Temperature -- Wind Speed -- 13.4 Crop Coefficient Method vs. Direct Methods -- 13.5 Evaporation and Evapotranspiration Calculations -- 13.6 Summary -- Chapter 14: Estimates of Irrigation Water Requirements and Streamflow Depletion -- 14.1 Introduction -- 14.2 Net Irrigation Water Requirement and Effective Precipitation -- 14.3 Leaching Requirement -- 14.4 Miscellaneous Water Requirements -- Germination -- Frost Protection -- Blossom Delay -- Wind Erosion Protection -- Plant Cooling -- 14.5 System Losses -- Net Irrigation Water Requirements -- Allowances for Nonuniform Distribution -- Storage and Distribution System Losses -- Expected Occurrences of ET -- Available Water and Rainfall Effects -- 14.6 PRECIPITATION RUNOFF -- 14.7 Improvements in Estimating Water Requirements
Impacts of Better Training
MOP 70 is a comprehensive reference to estimating the water quantities needed for irrigation of crops projects based upon the physics of evaporation and evapotranspiration (ET)
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: 70, Task Committee on Revision of Manual Evaporation, Evapotranspiration, and Irrigation Water Requirements Reston : American Society of Civil Engineers,c2016 9780784414057
Subject Evapotranspiration--Handbooks, manuals, etc
Electronic books
Alt Author Jensen, Marvin E
Allen, Richard Glen
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