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Author Vroom, Hendrik M
Title Looking Beneath the Surface : Medical Ethics from Islamic and Western Perspectives
Imprint New York : BRILL, 2013
©2013
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (340 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Series Currents of Encounter Ser. ; v.48
Currents of Encounter Ser
Note Intro -- Looking Beneath the Surface: Medical Ethicsfrom Islamic and Western Perspectives -- Table of Contents -- PREFACE -- CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION LOOKING BENEATH THE SURFACE: COMMONALITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ISLAMIC AND WESTERN PERSPECTIVES IN MEDICAL ETHICS -- Introduction -- Comparisons, Differences, and Commonalities -- The Arab-Islamic Paradigm of Accountability -- The Western Paradigm of Accountability -- The Law, Religious Reasons, and Medical Codes -- The Contributions -- Genetic Research, Treatments, and Counseling -- Embryos and Abortion -- Organ Donation -- Euthanasia, Palliative Sedation, Islamic Counseling, and the Right to Decide for Oneself -- CHAPTER II THE SOURCES OF ISLAMIC ETHICS AND FIQH -- Introduction -- The Difference between Fiqh and Shari'ah -- The Two Sources -- Levels in the Obligations and Commands -- What is Obligatory (Wajib or Fard) -- What is Recommended (Mandub, Sunnah) -- What is Neutral or Permitted (Mubah, Sunnah) -- What is Advised Against (Makruh) -- What is Forbidden (Haram) -- Religious Authority -- The Islamic Scholars (Ulama) -- Requirements for the Mujtahid -- The Law Schools (Madahib) -- Fiqh: Jurisprudence -- Ijtihad -- The Objectives of Shari'ah -- Conclusion -- CHAPTER III GENETIC MEDICINE: FACTS AND MORAL ISSUES FROM A WESTERN PERSPECTIVE -- Introduction -- Genetics in Health Care -- From Research to Health Care -- Screening and the Ability of Treatment -- Right Not to Know and the Duty to Inform -- Genetic Counseling, Non Directiveness, and Autonomy -- Research -- The Large Scale of Research -- From Research to Practice -- From Research to Legal Practice -- CHAPTER IV CAN FACTS ABOUT GENETIC RESEARCH PLAY A ROLE IN MORAL REASONING? -- Introduction -- Genetic Research and Morality -- The Nature versus Nurture Debate -- The Role of the Spirit -- Muslim Scholars and Genetic Discoveries
Genetic Engineering and Gene Therapy -- Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) -- Cloning -- Assisted Reproductive Techniques -- Genetic Counseling -- Autonomy -- Beneficence and Non-Maleficence -- Justice -- Ethical and Moral Problems in Genetic Counseling -- Genetic Tests Are Probabilistic and Do Not Predict Everything -- Costs -- Discussion and Conclusion -- CHAPTER V GENETIC TESTING AND COUNSELING IN THE CASE OF CONSANGUINITY: FACTS, ETHICAL AND LEGAL CONSEQUENCES -- Introduction -- Consanguinity: Facts and Figures -- Prejudices and Misunderstandings concerning Consanguinity -- Medical Implications of Consanguinity -- Genetic Health Care for Consanguineous Couples -- Principles of Genetic Testing and Counseling -- Informed Consent -- Non-Directiveness -- Respect for Privacy and Confidentiality -- Is Legislation Needed? -- Conclusion -- CHAPTER VI "NOTRE HUILE EST DANS NOTREF ARINE": AN EXPLORATION INTO THE MEANING OF CONSANGUINITY IN NORTHERN MOROCCO AGAINST THE BACKDROP OF THE MEDICAL RISK OF DISABLED OFFSPRING -- Introduction -- Anthropological Explanations for Consanguineous Endogamy -- The Incidence of Consanguineous Marriages in Morocco -- Consanguinity and Risk -- Consanguinity and Risk: The Discourse of Denial and Acceptance -- The Discourse of Denial: Mounia and Said -- The Discourse of Acceptance (1): Protesting Women -- The Discourse of Acceptance (2): The Women in the Mountains -- Discussion and Conclusion -- CHAPTER VII THE TREATMENT OF EMBRYOS FROM AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE -- Introduction -- The Status of the Embryo: Distinctions -- Ethical Considerations -- Embryo Research -- Research on Surplus Human Embryos in IVF Programs -- Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) -- Fetal Sex Selection -- Gene Therapy -- Cloning -- Research on Fetal Tissue Obtained through Abortion -- Conclusion
CHAPTER VIII THE MORAL STATUS OF THE HUMAN EMBRYO: CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVES AND THE IMPACT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES -- Introduction -- Roots and Context -- Lines of Thought -- New Technologies and the Status of the Human Embryo -- Conclusion -- CHAPTER IX REFLECTIONS ON TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY FOR GENETIC OR NON-GENETIC CONGENITAL DISORDERS -- Introduction -- Clinical Genetics -- The Dutch Termination of Pregnancy Act -- Community Genetics -- Prevention -- Informed Choice -- Reproductive Options -- Three Cases -- Case I -- Case II -- Case III -- Conclusion -- CHAPTER X TREATMENT OF THE EMBRYO: FACTS AND MORAL QUESTIONS -- Introduction -- Conceptual Puzzles, Highly Diverse Practices -- What Is a Human Embryo? -- Treatments-in Plura -- Moral Questions -- Overarching Issues -- Specific Ethical Questions and Debates -- Conclusions and Recommendations -- CHAPTER XI ABORTION: MEDICAL AND MORAL ASPECTS IN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES -- Introduction -- Stages of Fetal Growth as Described by Theologians -- The Sunnah -- Scholars' Opinions Regarding Abortion -- Special Circumstances -- Islam and Abortion Because of Pregnancy Outside of Marriage -- Islam and Abortion Because of Rape -- Islam and Abortion Because of Fetal Deformities -- Conclusion -- CHAPTER XII HUMAN ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION -- Introduction -- Ethical Issues in Retrieving Organs from the Deceased -- The Islamic View of the Medical Definition of Death -- Criteria and Safeguards -- Incisions in the Body -- General Rules -- Incision in the Body to Retrieve the Organ -- Does One Have the Right to Donate an Organ? -- Types of Rights Pertaining to the Human Body -- Rights Pertaining to the Body of the Living Human Being -- Rights Pertaining to the Body of the Deceased -- Healthy Donors -- Organs -- The Problem of Financial Exploitation -- Conclusion
CHAPTER XIII RECEIVING A DONOR ORGAN AND MUSLIMS IN EUROPE: THEOLOGICAL AND INTERCULTURAL DIMENSIONS -- Introduction -- Method -- Case Study -- Theological Dimensions -- Two Schools in Islam -- The Role of the Doctor -- Western Bioethics -- Intercultural Dimensions -- The Doctor Patient Relationship -- Bridging Intercultural Differences -- Conclusion -- CHAPTER XIV PALLIATIVE SEDATION: AN EXPLORATION FROM A CHRISTIAN ETHICAL POINT OF VIEW -- Introduction -- Palliative Sedation Only Hours or Days before an Expected Natural Death? -- Is There a Moral Obligation to "Feed the Hungry"? -- Other Religious Questions -- Palliative Sedation as Unnatural? -- Palliative Sedation as the End of Human Autonomy? -- Palliative Sedation as an Answer to Experiences of Meaninglessness? -- Is Palliative Sedation Always the Proportional Answer to Suffering? -- Concluding Remarks -- CHAPTER XV ISLAMIC CARE ETHICS BETWEEN LAW AND CONSCIENCE -- Introduction -- Abortion: Murder or Necessity? -- Turkish Law, Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh), and Practice -- Case I -- Case II -- Organ Donation -- Euthanasia or Suicide -- Stopping Treatment, Palliative Care, and Counseling in Dying -- Summary and Conclusion -- CHAPTER XVI THE ISLAMIC LEGAL SYSTEM VIS À VIS EUTHANASIA AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION -- Introduction -- What is Meant by Shari'ah? -- Islamic Law vis à vis Euthanasia ("Mercy Killing") -- Islamic Criteria and Conditions for Transplantation -- Islamic Arguments against Organ Transplantation -- Islamic Arguments for Organ Transplantation -- The Egyptian Organ Transplantation Law, No. 5 (2010) -- Donation Rules: Three Situations -- Economic and Social Aspects -- Medical Aspects -- Criminal and Administrative Sanctions -- Concluding Remarks -- CHAPTER XVII THE RIGHT TO MORAL INDEPENDENCE AND ITS MEANING FOR MEDICAL ISSUES -- Introduction -- Restricted Law: The Harm Principle
A Liberal Position -- The Skeleton of "Human Dignity" -- Two Interpretations of Human Dignity -- How Much Freedom Should the Law Grant in Medical Issues? -- CHAPTER XVIII OBSERVATIONS AND COMPARISONS -- Introduction -- Wealth and Poverty: Different Priorities -- Paradigms, Differences, and Internal Diversity -- The Social System: "Who looks after me?" -- Commonalities -- Laws, Counseling, and Decisions -- Final Comments -- Index of Subjects -- Index of Names -- Contributors
Looking Beneath the Surface explores Arab-Islamic and Western perspectives on medical ethical issues: genetic research and treatment, abortion, organ donation, and palliative sedation and euthanasia. The contributions in this volume discuss the state of the (medical) art, the role of laws, counseling, and spiritual counseling in the decision-making process. The different approaches to the ethical issues, ways of moral reasoning, become clear in these contributions, especially the role of tradition for Islam and the importance of autonomy for the West. Beneath the differences, however, the reader will also discover common values, such as the role of dignity and the value of life, and similar practices. Some of the main differences are sociocultural in nature, rather than religious as such. Well-known experts in the fields of medicine and ethics have contributed to this volume from different religious and secular backgrounds. The book offers a carefully written introduction and final chapter on intercultural comparisons. Looking Beneath the Surface is more than a collection of writings on issues in medical ethics: it helps the reader to compare different paradigms of accountability and moral reasoning
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Vroom, Hendrik M. Looking Beneath the Surface : Medical Ethics from Islamic and Western Perspectives New York : BRILL,c2013 9789042037304
Subject Medical ethics -- Religious aspects -- Islam.;Islamic ethics.;Medical ethics.;Medicine, Arab -- Moral and ethical aspects
Electronic books
Alt Author Verdonk, Petra
Abdellah, Marzouk Aulad
Cornel, Martina C
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