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Author Ehlert, Caroline
Title Prosecuting the Destruction of Cultural Property in International Criminal Law : with a Case Study on the Khmer Rouge's Destruction of Cambodia's Heritage
Imprint Leiden : BRILL, 2013
©2014
book jacket
Edition 1st ed
Descript 1 online resource (266 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Series International Criminal Law Ser. ; v.4
International Criminal Law Ser
Note Intro -- Prosecuting the Destruction of Cultural Property in International Criminal Law -- Copyright -- Table of Contents -- Acknowledgments -- Abbreviations -- Introduction -- Preliminary Remarks -- 1. Concept of International Criminal Law -- 2. Sources of International Criminal Law -- I. International Treaties -- II. Customary International Law -- III. General Principles of Law -- IV. Judicial Decisions and Teachings -- V. Others -- Chapter 1. Prohibition of the Destruction of Cultural Property in International Treaty Law -- 1. Historical Development -- I. The Classical Law -- II. Renaissance -- III. The Lieber Code -- IV. The 1874 Brussels Declaration and the 1880 Oxford Manual -- V. Developments between the two World Wars -- 2. The 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions -- I. Scope of Application -- II. Definition of Cultural Property -- III. Protection of Cultural Property -- IV. Violations of the Treaty -- 3. The Genocide Convention -- 4. The Geneva Conventions -- I. Scope of Application -- 1. International Armed Conflict -- 2. Non-International Armed Conflict -- 3. Belligerent Occupation -- II. Definition of Cultural Property -- III. Protection of Cultural Property -- IV. Violations of the Treaty -- 5. The 1954 Hague Convention -- I. Scope of Application -- 1. International Armed Conflict -- 2. Non-International Armed Conflict -- 3. Belligerent Occupation -- II. Definition of Cultural Property -- III. Protection of Cultural Property -- 1. General Protection -- 2. Special Protection -- IV. Violations of the Treaty -- 6. The 1972 Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage -- I. Scope of Application -- II. Definition of Cultural Property -- III. Protection of Cultural Property -- 1. General Protection -- 2. Special Protection -- IV. Violations of the Treaty
7. The 1977 Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 -- I. Scope of Application -- 1. International Armed Conflict -- 2. Non-International Armed Conflict -- 3. Belligerent Occupation -- II. Definition of Cultural Property -- III. Protection of Cultural Property -- 1. General Protection -- 2. Special Protection -- IV. Violations of the Treaty -- 8. The 1999 Second Hague Protocol -- I. Scope of Application -- II. Definition of Cultural Property -- III. Protection of Cultural Property -- 1. General Protection -- 2. Enhanced Protection -- IV. Violations of the Treaty -- 9. The 2003 UNESCO Declaration concerning the Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage -- I. Scope of Application -- II. Definition of Cultural Property -- III. Protection of Cultural Property -- IV. Violations of the Declaration -- 10. Interim Conclusion -- Chapter 2. The Prosecution of the Destruction of Cultural Property in the Practice of the International Criminal Tribunals -- 1. Structures of Crimes under International Criminal Law -- 2. War Crimes -- I. Evolution and Definition -- II. General Requirements -- 1. Serious Violation of International Humanitarian Law -- 2. Existence of an Armed Conflict or Belligerent Occupation -- a. International or Internal Armed Conflict -- b. Applicability, ratione temporis and loci -- c. Belligerent Occupation -- 3. Nexus between the Underlying Offence and the Armed Conflict -- 4. Mens Rea -- a. Mens Rea in General -- b. Mens Rea for War Crimes -- III. Underlying Offences with regard to Destruction of Cultural Property -- 1. Lex Generalis -- 2. Lex Specialis -- 3. Object of the Offence -- 4. Nature of the Offence -- 5. Level of Gravity of the Offence -- 6. Not justified by Military Necessity -- 7. Mens Rea -- 3. Crimes against Humanity -- I. Evolution and Definition -- II. General Requirements
1. Part of a Widespread or Systematic Attack -- a. Attack -- b. Widespread or Systematic -- 2. Directed against any Civilian Population -- 3. On National, Political, Ethnical, Racial or Religious Grounds -- 4. Mens Rea -- III. Underlying Offence with regard to the Destruction of Cultural Property: Persecution -- 1. Deprivation of a Fundamental Right -- 2. Nature of the Offence -- 3. Level of Gravity of the Offence -- 4. Mens Rea -- a. Political, Racial, or Religious Grounds for Persecution -- b. Other Grounds for Persecution -- 4. Interim Conclusion -- I. War Crimes -- II. Crimes against Humanity -- Chapter 3: Case Study Cambodia -- 1. Background to the Khmer Rouge Regime -- I. Democratic Kampuchea -- II. 1978 Rebellions in the Eastern Zone -- III. Armed Conflict with Vietnam -- IV. Destruction of Cultural Property -- 1. The Monkhood -- 2. Buddhist Places of Worship -- 3. Buddha Images and Buddhist Books -- 4. Temple Complex of Angkor -- 5. Orders concerning the Destruction -- V. Cambodia after 1979 -- 2. The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) -- I. Establishment of the ECCC -- II. Nature of the ECCC -- III. Jurisdiction of the ECCC -- IV. Structure of the ECCC -- V. Procedural Law of the ECCC -- VI. The Cases -- 3. Direct Applicability of the 1954 Hague Convention by the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia -- I. Preliminary Observations -- 1. Principle of Legality -- 2. Serious Violation of International Humanitarian Law -- II. Elements of the Crime -- 1. Existence of an Armed Conflict -- a. International Armed Conflict -- b. Non-International Armed Conflict -- c. Belligerent Occupation -- 2. Nexus between the Destruction of Cultural Property and the Armed Conflict -- 3. Object of the Offence -- 4. Nature of the Offence -- 5. Level of Gravity of the Offence -- 6. Not justified by Military Necessity
7. Mens Rea -- 4. Alternative Provisions for the Prosecution of the Destruction of Cultural Property at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia -- I. Grave Breaches of the 1949 Geneva Convention -- II. 1956 Penal Code -- III. Crimes against Humanity -- 1. General Requirements -- a. Existence of an Armed Conflict? -- b. Part of a Widespread or Systematic Attack -- c. On National, Political, Ethnical, Racial or Religious Grounds -- d. Nexus between the Acts of the Accused and the Attack -- e. Mens Rea -- 2. Underlying Offence with regard to Destruction of Cultural Property: Persecution -- a. Deprivation of Fundamental Right -- b. Nature of the Offence -- c. Level of Gravity of the Offence -- d. Mens Rea -- 5. Interim Conclusion -- Conclusion -- 1. Prosecuting the Destruction of Cultural Property during Armed Conflicts -- 2. Prosecuting the Destruction of Cultural Property during Peacetime -- Bibliography -- Index
In Prosecuting the Destruction of Cultural Property in International Criminal Law Caroline Ehlert offers an analysis of treaty law protecting cultural property from destruction and foremost of the relevant provisions for prosecuting the destruction of cultural property in international criminal law
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Ehlert, Caroline Prosecuting the Destruction of Cultural Property in International Criminal Law : with a Case Study on the Khmer Rouge's Destruction of Cambodia's Heritage Leiden : BRILL,c2013 9789004257627
Subject Cultural property -- Protection (International law) -- Criminal provisions.;Cultural property -- Protection -- Law and legislation -- Cambodia -- Criminal provisions.;International criminal law
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