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Author Jaud, Mélise
Title Champions Wanted : Promoting Exports in the Middle East and North Africa
Imprint Herndon : World Bank Publications, 2015
©2015
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (91 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Series Directions in Development - Trade
Directions in Development - Trade
Note Front Cover -- Contents -- Acknowledgments -- About the Authors -- Overview -- Abbreviations -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- Exports for Growth, More and Better Jobs -- Firm-Level Perspectives on MENA Trade Performance -- References -- Chapter 2 One Champion, but No Team -- Key Messages -- Who Are MENA Exporters? -- Alone at the Top -- Lacking Market Power -- And Failing to Drive Comparative Advantage -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 3 Priced out of Global Markets -- Key Messages -- Exchange Rate Policy in MENA -- Under-Exporting and Over-Importing -- Overvaluation Hurts -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 4 Getting Policy Right -- Key Messages -- The Policy Environment in MENA -- Tariffs, NTMs, and Market Power -- Tariffs Limit Global Value Chains -- Regulatory Convergence as Export Promotion -- Laissez-Passer: It Matters -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 5 Industrial Policy in MENA: The Small and the Big -- Key Messages -- Export Promotion: Too Small to Matter -- Champions or Cronies? -- Note -- References -- Chapter 6 Building Export Champions: Implications for Policy -- MENA Needs More Export Champions -- Some Policy Leads -- Appendix A Firm-Level Data and Competitiveness Indicators -- Appendix B Superstars and Revealed Comparative Advantage across Industries -- Appendix C NTM Regulatory Distance Methodology -- Boxes -- Box 1.1 Exports Matter for Jobs: Evidence from Tunisia -- Box 2.1 Sanctions and Trade Deflection: Evidence from the Islamic Republic of Iran -- Box 4.1 Regulatory Harmonization and Firm Performance in Morocco: What Should We Expect? -- Box 4.2 How Valuable Is Market Access? Evidence from the West Bank -- Box 5.1 Export Support: Remedy or Addictive Drug? -- Figures -- Figure B1.1.1 Trade Participation and Employment -- Figure 2.1 Who Are MENA Exporters?
Figure 2.2 Distribution of Firms and Export Values by Product-Destination Coverage -- Figure 2.3 How Diversified Are MENA Exporters? -- Figure B2.1.1 Exporters' Dynamics with or without Sanctions -- Figure 2.4 The Top Firm Is Unique in MENA -- Figure 2.5 MENA Exporters Lack Punching Power -- Figure 2.6 Export Superstars and Revealed Comparative Advantage -- Figure 3.1 Trade Costs in MENA -- Figure 4.1 Comparative Evolution of Average Tariffs, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s -- Figure 4.2 NTMs in MENA: From Command-and-Control to Regulations -- Figure 4.3 Trade Policy and Pricing-to-Market -- Figure 4.4 Trade Protection on Final and Intermediate Inputs in MENA -- Figure 4.5 Imported Inputs and Export Prices in Morocco -- Figure 4.6 Cross-Country Regulatory Distances -- Figure 4.7 Harmonization of Moroccan NTMs with EU Regulations -- Figure 4.8 Did Harmonization Protect Morocco's Home Market? -- Figure B4.2.1 Mobility Restrictions and Economic Performance in the West Bank -- Figure 5.1 Regional Export-Promotion Agencies' Expenditure over Exports -- Map -- Map B4.2.1 Mobility Restrictions and Night-Time Lights in the West Bank in 2006 and 2012 -- Tables -- Table B1.1.1 Employment, Trade, and Tax Regime -- Table B1.1.2 Net Job Creation and International Orientation -- Table 2.1 Exporters in MENA: Summary Statistics -- Table 2.2 Superstars' Characteristics -- Table 3.1 Is MENA Under-Trading? Results from a Gravity Equation -- Table 3.2 Exchange Rate and Export Surges in MENA -- Table 5.1 Export-Promotion Agencies in MENA -- Table A.1 Exporter-Level Data: Statistics by Country -- Table A.2 Firm-Level Data Sources and Access -- Table B.1 Superstars and Revealed Comparative Advantage across Industries
While other emerging regions were thriving, MENA's aggregate export performance over the past two decades has been consistently weak. Using detailed firm-level export data from Customs administrations, this report explains why. One central finding is that the size distribution of MENA's exporting firms is suggestive of a critical weakness at the top. With the exception of the top firm, MENA's elite exporters are smaller and weaker compared to their peers in other regions. The largest exporter is alone at the top-Zidane without a team. MENA countries have failed to nurture a group of export superstars which critically contribute to export success in other regions. Part of the reason behind weak export performance is the lack of a competitive real exchange rate. The deleterious effects of an uncompetitive currency can be traced all the way down to the firm, hurting expansion at the intensive and extensive margin and preventing the emergence of export take-offs. The lack of heavy weight exporters at the top of the distribution also reflects the region's failure to push for trade and business climate reforms energetically. Finally, MENA's prevalent cronyism and corruption under pre-Arab Spring regimes (at least) confirms that business-government ties led to distortionary allocation of favors and rent dissipation by beneficiary firms, with little evidence that those firms developed into national champions or helped lift the region's export performance. The possibility of state capture in itself should call for caution when advocating any form of government intervention. In contrast, some interventions, like export promotion programs show effects on small exporters. However, because these firms are marginal in trade, such programs cannot be game changers. More broadly, the success of MENA countries in promoting export growth and diversification as well
as generating jobs depends heavily on their ability to create an environment where large firms can invest and expand exports and new, efficient firms can rise to the top
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Jaud, Mélise Champions Wanted : Promoting Exports in the Middle East and North Africa Herndon : World Bank Publications,c2015 9781464804601
Subject Free trade -- Middle East.;Free trade -- Africa, North.;Middle East -- Commercial policy.;Africa, North -- Commercial policy
Electronic books
Alt Author Freund, Caroline
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