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Author Vasisht, Niraj
Title Microencapsulation in the Food Industry : A Practical Implementation Guide
Imprint San Diego : Elsevier Science & Technology, 2014
©2014
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (590 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Front Cover -- Microencapsulation in the Food Industry -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Foreword -- Preface -- About the Editors -- List of Contributors -- I: Introduction -- 1 Introduction to Microencapsulation and Controlled Delivery in Foods -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 Microencapsulation defined -- 1.3 Reasons for microencapsulation -- 1.4 Types of microcapsules -- 1.5 Historical account of microencapsulation -- 1.6 Materials used for microencapsulation purposes -- 1.7 Microencapsulation techniques used within the food industry -- 1.8 Trends in microencapsulation -- 1.9 Challenges in microencapsulation of food ingredients -- 1.10 The future of microencapsulation of food ingredients -- References -- II: Concept of Microencapsulation -- 2 Factors and Mechanisms in Microencapsulation -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Structural design of the microcapsule -- 2.3 Microcapsule or microsphere type -- 2.4 Microcapsule size, shape, and payload -- 2.5 Physicochemical factors -- 2.5.1 Molecular Weight of the Active Agent -- 2.5.2 Functional Moiety and Surface Charge -- 2.5.3 Concentration -- 2.5.4 Solubility -- 2.5.5 Wettability -- 2.5.6 Temperature -- 2.5.7 Process Factors -- 2.6 Mechanism of diffusion -- 2.6.1 Zero Order or Pseudo-Zero Order Diffusion Model -- 2.6.2 Fickian Diffusion Model -- 2.6.3 First Order Diffusion Model -- 2.6.4 Higuchi's Diffusion Model -- 2.6.5 Case II Diffusion -- 2.6.6 Osmosis -- 2.7 Conclusion -- References -- 3 Applications of Mass and Heat Transfer in Microencapsulation Processes -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Mechanism of diffusion -- 3.3 Zero order or pseudo-zero order diffusion model -- 3.4 Fickian diffusion model -- 3.4.1 Mass Transfer in a Microsphere Morphology -- 3.4.2 Unsteady-State Diffusion From a Microsphere -- 3.4.3 Mass Transfer in a Microcapsule Morphology -- 3.4.4 Analogy to Heat Transfer
3.5 First order diffusion model -- 3.6 Conclusion -- References -- III: Process Technologies in Microencapsulation -- 4 Overview of Microencapsulation Process Technologies -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Process components -- 4.3 Processes -- 4.3.1 Atomization -- 4.3.2 Spray Coating -- 4.3.3 Coextrusion -- 4.3.4 Emulsion Based -- 4.3.5 Other -- 4.4 Comparisons -- 4.4.1 Size -- 4.4.2 Morphology -- 4.4.3 Payload -- 4.4.4 Materials -- 4.4.5 Production Scale -- 4.4.6 Cost -- 4.5 Emerging processes and trends -- 4.6 Process selection -- References -- 5 Atomization and Spray-Drying Processes -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Atomization -- 5.3 Drying configurations -- 5.3.1 Mass Transfer and Heat Transfer Considerations -- 5.4 Operational practice -- 5.5 Feed preparation -- 5.6 Recent advances in atomization and spray-drying processes -- 5.7 Conclusion -- References -- 6 New Advances in Spray-Drying Processes -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Technologies -- 6.3 Computational optimization -- 6.4 Analyzing the drying process of a droplet -- 6.5 Drying kinetics as input for CFD -- 6.5.1 Spray Drying Equipment and Controls -- 6.5.2 Temperature Control -- 6.5.3 Flexible Spray Drying, Agglomeration, and Granulates -- 6.5.4 Cleaning-In-Place -- 6.5.5 Sanitary Bag Filters -- 6.5.6 Process Controls and Adaptive Feedback -- 6.6 Conclusion -- References -- 7 Fluid Bed Coating-Based Microencapsulation -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Wurster (bottom spray) fluid bed coating -- 7.3 Top spray granulation -- 7.4 Rotary tangential spray granulation -- 7.5 Static tangential spray granulation -- 7.6 Discussion -- 7.6.1 Fluidization -- 7.6.2 Temperature -- 7.6.3 Drying Capacity -- 7.6.4 Nozzles and Spray -- 7.6.5 Scale-Up -- 7.6.6 Continuous Processes -- 7.7 Formulation considerations -- 7.8 Conclusion -- References -- 8 Extrusion-Based Microencapsulation for the Food Industry -- 8.1 Introduction
8.2 Evolution of extrusion technology -- 8.3 Conclusion -- References -- 9 Spheronization, Granulation, Pelletization, and Agglomeration Processes -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Basic equipment -- 9.3 Batch fluidized beds for drying, agglomeration, and coating -- 9.4 Continuous fluidized beds for drying, agglomeration, spray granulation, and coating -- 9.5 ProCell type of continuous spouted beds for drying, agglomeration, spray granulation, and coating -- 9.6 Technical options for pelletization -- 9.7 Technical options for high-shear granulation -- 9.8 Technical options for extrusion -- 9.9 Application case studies -- 9.10 Formulation of enzymes -- 9.11 Formulation of vitamins -- 9.12 Encapsulation of volatile ingredients -- 9.13 Conclusion -- References -- 10 Annular Jet-Based Processes -- 10.1 Introduction -- 10.2 Process technologies -- 10.2.1 Laminar Flow Breakup -- 10.2.2 Vibrational Drip Casting -- 10.2.3 Submerged Nozzle -- 10.2.4 Flow Focusing -- 10.2.5 General Principle -- 10.3 Equipment -- 10.3.1 Nisco Engineering -- 10.3.2 BUCHI -- 10.3.3 BRACE -- 10.3.4 Freund Corporation -- 10.3.5 Other Annular Jet Systems -- 10.4 Materials -- 10.4.1 Encapsulation of Hydrophobic Materials -- 10.4.2 Encapsulation of Hydrophilic Agents -- 10.5 Conclusion -- References -- 11 Monodispersed Microencapsulation Technology -- 11.1 Introduction -- 11.2 Monodisperse particle fabrication technologies -- 11.2.1 Microfluidics -- 11.2.2 Electrohydrodynamic Spraying -- 11.2.3 Jet Cutting -- 11.2.4 Rotary Disc Atomization -- 11.2.5 Vibratory Process -- 11.2.6 Flow Focusing -- 11.2.7 Vibratory Process Combined With a Carrier Stream -- 11.3 Conclusion -- References -- 12 Coacervation Processes -- 12.1 Introduction -- 12.2 Selection of wall materials -- 12.2.1 Proteins -- 12.2.2 Polysaccharides -- 12.3 Coacervation encapsulation processes
12.4 Parameters influencing the formation of coacervates -- 12.5 Evaluation of coacervates -- 12.5.1 Structure -- 12.5.2 Size and Size Distribution of Capsules -- 12.5.3 Encapsulation Efficiency -- 12.6 Stability, controlled release, and bioavailability -- 12.7 Conclusion -- References -- 13 Application of Liposomes in the Food Industry -- 13.1 Introduction -- 13.2 What are liposomes? -- 13.3 Liposome stability -- 13.3.1 Hydrolysis of Liposomes -- 13.3.2 Effect of Buffer and pH -- 13.3.3 Oxidation of Unsaturated Phospholipids -- 13.3.4 Saturated Ether Lipids -- 13.3.5 Application of Liposome as a Solubility Tool -- 13.3.6 Application of Liposomes in the Food and Beverage Industry -- 13.3.7 Application of Liposomes in Protecting Small Molecules and Enzymes -- 13.3.8 Liposome Encapsulation of Antimicrobials -- 13.3.9 Application of Liposomes in the Accelerated Ripening of Cheese -- 13.3.10 Encapsulation of Maillard Browning Reagent in Liposomes -- 13.4 Conclusion -- References -- 14 Nanoencapsulation in the Food Industry: Technology of the Future -- 14.1 Introduction -- 14.2 Technology advantages -- 14.3 Classification of nanoencapsulated systems -- 14.4 Liquid-liquid systems -- 14.5 Microemulsions -- 14.6 Nanoemulsions -- 14.7 Liposomes -- 14.8 Solid-Lipid nanoparticles -- 14.9 Solid-Solid systems -- 14.10 Nanofibers -- 14.11 Conclusion -- References -- 15 Aqueous Two-Phase Systems for Microencapsulation in Food Applications -- 15.1 Introduction -- 15.2 Encapsulation in films, gels, and dispersed gel particles -- 15.3 Encapsulation in particulate systems -- 15.3.1 Spray-Dried Particles -- 15.3.1.1 Spray-Dried ATPS for Enzyme Encapsulation -- 15.3.1.2 Encapsulation of Probiotics in ATPS -- 15.3.1.3 PVP-Dextran Conceptual Study -- 15.3.1.4 Polysaccharide-Based Systems -- 15.3.1.5 Protein-Polysaccharide Systems -- 15.3.2 Core-Shell Particles
15.3.3 Microspheres Produced in ATPS -- 15.4 Conclusion -- References -- IV: Materials Used in Microencapsulation -- 16 Selection of Materials for Microencapsulation -- 16.1 Introduction -- 16.2 Morphological design -- 16.3 Material selection -- 16.4 Hydrophilic materials -- 16.4.1 Proteins -- 16.4.2 Carbohydrates -- 16.5 Hydrophobic materials -- 16.6 Conclusions -- References -- 17 Cellulose Polymers in Microencapsulation of Food Additives -- 17.1 Introduction -- 17.2 Properties of cellulosic polymers -- 17.2.1 General Properties -- 17.2.2 Solubility -- 17.2.3 Thermal Gelation -- 17.2.4 Surface Activity -- 17.2.5 Stability -- 17.3 Applications of cellulosic polymers in microencapsulation -- 17.3.1 Emulsion Stabilizers and Dispersants -- 17.3.2 Formulation Binders -- 17.3.3 Film and Barrier Coatings -- 17.4 Process considerations using cellulosic polymers -- References -- 18 The Use of Starch-Based Materials for Microencapsulation -- 18.1 Introduction -- 18.2 Starch and starch modifications -- 18.2.1 The Nature of Starches -- 18.2.2 Food Starch Modifications -- 18.2.2.1 Chemical Modifications -- 18.2.2.2 Physical Treatments -- 18.2.2.3 Enzymatic Treatment -- 18.2.2.4 Hydrophobic Modification -- 18.3 Characteristics of OSA starches -- 18.4 Using modified starches for microencapsulation -- 18.4.1 Typical Spray Drying Practices Using OSA Starches -- 18.4.2 A Dynamic Model and its Relevance to Matrix Materials -- 18.4.3 Case Studies -- 18.4.3.1 Case 1-Flavor Encapsulation in the Spray Drying Process -- 18.4.3.2 Case 2-Vitamin Encapsulation -- 18.4.3.3 Case 3-Fat Encapsulation -- 18.4.3.4 Case 4-Gelatin Replacement in Spray Congealing -- 18.4.3.5 Case 5-Extrusion -- 18.4.3.6 Case 6-Plating -- 18.5 Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- 19 Use of Milk Proteins for Encapsulation of Food Ingredients -- 19.1 Introduction
19.2 Milk proteins and their function in encapsulation
Microencapsulation is being used to deliver everything from improved nutrition to unique consumer sensory experiences. It's rapidly becoming one of the most important opportunities for expanding brand potential. Microencapsulation in the Food Industry: A Practical Implementation Guide is written for those who see the potential benefit of using microencapsulation but need practical insight into using the technology. With coverage of the process technologies, materials, testing, regulatory and even economic insights, this book presents the key considerations for putting microencapsulation to work. Application examples as well as online access to published and issued patents provide information on freedom to operate, building an intellectual property portfolio, and leveraging ability into potential in licensing patents to create produce pipeline. This book bridges the gap between fundamental research and application by combining the knowledge of new and novel processing techniques, materials and selection, regulatory concerns, testing and evaluation of materials, and application-specific uses of microencapsulation. Practical applications based on the authors' more than 50 years combined industry experience Focuses on application, rather than theory Includes the latest in processes and methodologies Provides multiple "starting point" options to jump-start encapsulation use
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Vasisht, Niraj Microencapsulation in the Food Industry : A Practical Implementation Guide San Diego : Elsevier Science & Technology,c2014 9780124045682
Subject Microencapsulation
Electronic books
Alt Author Khare, Atul R
Sobel, Robert
Gaonkar, Anilkumar G
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