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006    m     o  d |       
007    cr cnu|||||||| 
008    200713s2009    xx      o     ||||0 eng d 
020    9780821379394|q(electronic bk.) 
020    |z9780821377536 
035    (MiAaPQ)EBC459649 
035    (Au-PeEL)EBL459649 
035    (CaPaEBR)ebr10292336 
035    (OCoLC)568421737 
040    MiAaPQ|beng|erda|epn|cMiAaPQ|dMiAaPQ 
050  4 HC430.T4 -- P76 2009eb 
082 0  338/.0640951 
100 1  Pigato, Miria 
245 10 Promoting Enterprise-Led Innovation in China 
264  1 Herndon :|bWorld Bank Publications,|c2009 
264  4 |c©2009 
300    1 online resource (170 pages) 
336    text|btxt|2rdacontent 
337    computer|bc|2rdamedia 
338    online resource|bcr|2rdacarrier 
505 0  Contents -- Acknowledgments -- Abbreviations -- Executive 
       Summary -- Chapter 1 Pursuing a Balanced Strategy -- The 
       2006 S&T Program -- Purpose and Scope of This Study -- A 
       Broad Definition of Innovation -- The Scale of Chinese 
       Innovation -- The Achievements of Chinese Innovation -- 
       The Contribution of Innovation to China's Current Economic
       Success -- The Innovation Challenges Faced by China -- 
       Pursuing a Balanced Strategy -- Conclusions -- Chapter 2 
       Creating the Right Incentives -- Who Performs R&D in 
       China? -- Making SOEs More Innovative -- Strengthening 
       External Incentives -- Raising the Demand for Innovation -
       - Conclusions -- Chapter 3 Building the Capacity of 
       Private Enterprises -- China's Emerging Private 
       Enterprises -- Innovation Activities of Chinese Private 
       SMEs: A Close-Up -- Effectively Managing Human Resources 
       for Innovation -- Facilitating the Collaboration of SMEs 
       with RDIs and HEIs -- Enhancing Innovation Services -- 
       Conclusions -- Chapter 4 Strengthening the Ecosystem for 
       the Venture Capital Industry -- The Ecosystem for the VC 
       Industry -- The Domestic VC Industry in China -- 
       Strengthening the Ecosystem for the VC Industry -- The 
       Role of the Government in Supporting the VC Industry -- 
       Conclusions -- Chapter 5 Moving Forward with Actions -- 
       Balanced Strategic Thinking -- Innovation-Supporting 
       Policies -- SME-Specific Programs -- Key Issues for 
       Further Study -- Notes -- References -- Index -- Boxes -- 
       1.1 China's Cement Industry -- 1.2 India Stands to Gain 
       More from Absorption than Creation -- 1.3 Wangxiang: 
       Incremental Innovation in the Service of Long-Term Goals -
       - 2.1 China's Reform of RDIs -- 2.2 Entry Barriers Created
       by Industry Policies for the Dairy Industry -- 2.3 
       Government Procurement Practices: Hurting or Helping 
505 8  2.4 Using Government Procurement to Protect Local 
       Production: The Case of Li Jiating of Yunnan Province -- 
       3.1 "Employee First, Customer Second": A Soft Slogan with 
       Hard Value at HCL Technologies -- 3.2 A Three-Part Mission
       for an SME Skills Development Center -- 3.3 Building a 
       System of Lifelong Learning in China -- 3.4 The TEFT 
       Technology Attachés as Brokers -- 3.5 The Innovation 
       Voucher for SMEs in the Netherlands -- 3.6 The Industrial 
       Technology Research Institute (ITRI) in Taiwan, China -- 
       3.7 Fundación Chile: A Path Breaker in Tapping 
       Technologies and Promoting Innovations -- 3.8 The 
       Semiconductor Industry Association -- 4.1 Recent Progress 
       in the Reform of Company and Partnership Laws in China -- 
       4.2 The 2005 Amendments to China's Company Law -- Figures 
       -- 1.1 China's R&D Expenditure, 1995-2006 -- 1.2 R&D 
       Intensity in 2004 and Annual Average Growth Rate of R&D 
       Intensity, 1999-2004 -- 1.3 Expenditures on R&D, 
       Technology Import, and Technology Absorption by Chinese 
       LMEs, 1995-2006 -- 1.4 Value Added of "High-Tech 
       Industries" as a Percentage of China's GDP, 1995-2006 -- 
       1.5 Educational Attainment of China's Labor Force: A 
       Comparison of the Mainland with Taiwan, China, 1978 and 
       2006 -- 2.1 Distribution of China's R&D Expenditures, by 
       Performing Sector, 2000-06 -- 2.2 Distribution of the Full
       -time Equivalent (FTE) of China's R&D Personnel, by 
       Performing Sector, 2000-06 -- 2.3 Distribution of China's 
       R&D Effort, by Type of Performer and, for LMEs, by Type of
       Ownership, 2006 -- 3.1 The Takeoff of China's Private 
       Sector, 1998-2006 -- 3.2 Size of Private Industrial 
       Enterprises Relative to Their Competitors and Their Share 
       in Total Output, by Sector, 2006 -- 3.3 The Occupations of
       Chinese Private Business Owners before They Started Their 
       Businesses, 2005 -- 3.4 Training Expenses and Employee 
       Resignations in Chinese Private Firms, 2004-06 
505 8  4.1 Sources of Funding for Early-Stage Technology 
       Development in the United States, 2002 -- 4.2 Sources of 
       Funding for China's Domestic VC Firms -- 4.3 The Dual VC 
       Structure in China -- Tables -- 1.1 Annual Increase of 
       China's R&D Expenditure, by Performing Sector, 2001-06 -- 
       1.2 Structure of R&D Expenditures of Chinese LMEs, Large 
       and Domestic, by Selected Sectors, 2006 -- 1.3 Patents 
       Granted by Chinese Authorities to Domestically Funded 
       Chinese Enterprises, by Type of Patent, 1995-2006 -- 2.1 R
       &D Expenditures and Performance of LMEs in China, by Type 
       of Ownership, 2006 -- 2.2 Government Procurement in China,
       2003-05 -- 3.1 Selected Characteristics of SMEs in 
       Chongqing and Zhejiang that Responded to the World Bank 
       CSMEI Survey -- 3.2 Importance of Selected Objectives of 
       Innovation Activities of SMEs in Chongqing and Zhejiang --
       3.3 Importance of Selected Innovation Strategies of SMEs 
       in Chongqing and Zhejiang -- 3.4 Modes of Cooperation with
       RDIs and HEIs by SMEs in Chongqing and Zhejiang -- 3.5 
       Causes of Unsuccessful Innovation Activities of SMEs in 
       Chongqing and Zhejiang -- 3.6 Issues of HR Management in 
       SMEs in Chongqing and Zhejiang -- 3.7 Difficulties in 
       Managing Skilled R&D Workers, by Firm Ownership and 
       Governance Categories -- 3.8 Average Training Expenses and
       Staff Turnover in Chinese Private Enterprises, 2004-06, by
       Sector -- 3.9 Social Insurance in Chinese Private 
       Enterprises, 2006 -- 3.10 Experience of SMEs in Chongqing 
       and Zhejiang with Contract Execution and Services of RDIs 
       and HEIs -- 3.11 Role of Enterprises in S&T and R&D 
       Projects of RDIs in China, 2006 -- 3.12 Experience of 
       Chongqing and Zhejiang SMEs with Innovation Services, 2006
       -- 3.13 Comparison of SMEs in Chongqing and Zhejiang 
       regarding Innovation Activities: A Summary -- 4.1 Basic 
       Framework for Types of Financing Used at Selected Stages 
       of Innovation 
505 8  4.2 Number of New VC Firms Started in China, and Amount of
       Capitalization, by Domestic and Foreign Origin, 2007 -- 
       4.3 Investments in China Made by VC Funds, by Domestic and
       Foreign Origin, 2007 -- 4.4 Characteristics of VC in China,
       2003-07 -- 4.5 VC Investments in China, by Stage of 
       Business Development, 2007 -- 4.6 Number of VC Divestments
       in China, by Method, 2006-07 
520    China and India's spectacular economic rise over the last 
       two decades has accelerated their trade and investment 
       flows with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), 
       particularly with the oil-producing countries. And while 
       these flows are still small, China and India's presence in
       the region is on the rise. This report focuses on the 
       following questions:what have been evolution and the 
       impact of MENA's trade and investment relations with China
       and India? what actions can be taken to maximize the 
       benefits from these relations and to enhance MENA's 
       international integration? The main findings indicate that
       the region as a whole has benefited from the rise of China
       and India in terms of better terms of trade, significant 
       increases in oil and gas exports, and cheaper imports. 
       However, producers of industrial goods have been 
       negatively-and in a few cases severely-affected by 
       competition with the two Asian countries in both third and
       domestic markets. While China and India are investing more
       in MENA, they are contributing very little to job creation
       or to the transfer and diffusion of technology. Faster 
       growth in the two Asian countries-and the associated 
       higher demand for energy-will increase revenues from oil 
       and the difficult choices associated with their 
       management. For the labor-abundant, non oil-producing 
       countries, competition with China and India will increase.
       But the lack of competitive manufacturing industries and 
       services, the insufficient attention given in the past to 
       building technological capabilities and promoting openness
       and entrepreneurship are constraining their ability to 
       respond to competition. They need to accelerate 
       productivity to tackle unemployment, especially among 
       youth. This may require the broader institutional changes 
       seen in China and India-suggesting the importance of a 
       pragmatic reform agenda that can accelerate 
520 8  productivity, trade, and investment in the region 
588    Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other
590    Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest 
       Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access 
       may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated 
650  0 Technological innovations -- Economic aspects -- 
       China.;Technology transfer -- China 
655  4 Electronic books 
700 1  Zhihua Zeng, Douglas 
700 1  Mako, William Peter 
700 1  Seward, James 
776 08 |iPrint version:|aPigato, Miria|tPromoting Enterprise-Led 
       Innovation in China|dHerndon : World Bank Publications,
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