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Author Mozzarelli, Andrea
Title Chemistry and Biochemistry of Oxygen Therapeutics : From Transfusion to Artificial Blood
Imprint Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2011
©2011
book jacket
Edition 2nd ed
Descript 1 online resource (476 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Intro -- Chemistry and Biochemistry of Oxygen Therapeutics -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- Preface -- 1. Introduction -- References -- Part I. Oxygen: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Physiology and Toxicity -- 2. Hemoglobin Reactivity and Regulation -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Oxygen Loading and Transport -- 2.3 NO Reactivity with Hb -- 2.4 Hb Oxidation -- 2.5 Nitrite Reactivity with Hb -- 2.6 Amino-acid Determinants of Hb Reactivity: Natural and Engineered Hbs -- 2.6.1 Modulation of Oxygen Affinity and Cooperativity -- 2.6.2 NO Reactivity and Oxidation -- 2.7 Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- 3. The Major Physiological Control Mechanisms of Blood Flow and Oxygen Delivery -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Autoregulation of Blood Flow to Changes in Perfusion Pressure -- 3.3 Metabolic Regulation of Blood Flow -- 3.4 O2 Transport -- 3.5 O2 Delivery -- 3.6 Endothelial Control of Vasomotor Tone -- 3.7 Effect of Cell-free Hb on Endothelial Function -- 3.8 Hypoxic Hypoxia -- 3.9 Carbon Monoxide Hypoxia -- 3.10 Anemia -- 3.11 Conclusion -- References -- 4. The Main Players: Hemoglobin and Myoglobin -- Nitric Oxide and Oxygen -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Role of Mammalian Mb in O2 Homeostasis -- 4.3 WhatŁfs Missing in the Mb Knockout Mouse -- 4.4 Evolutionary Origins of Mb and the Nitrogen Cycle -- 4.5 Human Hb: Evolved Sensor of pO2 and Redox -- 4.6 Broad Reactivity and Influence of NO: Lessons from the Microcosm Hb -- 4.7 Some Fish Demonstrate a Fundamental "Need" for Hb-dependent NO Cycling, as in Humans -- 4.8 Reactions of NO with Hb that Preserve NO Bioactivity -- 4.9 Mammalian RBC/Hb.NO Interactions -- 4.10 A Mutant Mouse Challenges the SNO-Hb Hypothesis, but does not Overthrow it -- 4.11 Signaling by Hb-derived SNO: A Metabolically Responsive, Regulated Pathway
4.12 Signaling by Hb-derived SNO: Pathway Complexity Revealed by Multiple Defects in Disease States -- 4.13 Therapeutic Implications of the Hb.NO Signaling System -- 4.14 HBOCs, NO, and SNO -- 4.15 Other Gaseous Hb Ligands of Potential Therapeutic Significance -- 4.16 NO-related Enzymatic Activities of Hb: Reconciling Nitrite Reductase and SNO Synthase Functions -- 4.17 Measuring Biologically Relevant Hb.NO Adducts -- 4.18 Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- 5. The Role of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Redox System and Free Radicals in Biological Systems -- 5.3 Pathophysiology of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury -- 5.3.1 Cell Death -- 5.3.2 The Inflammatory Response -- 5.4 Protection Against I/R Injury -- 5.4.1 Ischemic Pre- and Post-conditioning -- 5.4.2 Pharmacological Conditioning -- 5.4.2.1 The Protective Role of ROS and Antioxidants -- 5.4.2.2 The Protective Role of NO -- 5.4.2.3 NO-based Therapies for I/R Injury -- 5.5 Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Part II. Medical Needs for Oxygen Supply -- 6. Acute Traumatic Hemorrhage and Anemia -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Blood Transfusion in Trauma -- 6.2.1 Massive Transfusion -- 6.2.2 Massive Transfusion and Coagulopathy -- 6.2.3 Hypotensive or Delayed Resuscitation -- 6.2.4 Hemostatic Resuscitation -- 6.2.5 Massive Transfusion Protocols -- 6.2.6 Transfusion after Hemorrhage Control -- 6.2.7 Efficacy of RBC Transfusion in Trauma and Associated Risks -- 6.3 Oxygen Therapeutics in Trauma -- 6.3.1 Diaspirin Crosslinked Hb -- 6.3.2 Hemopure -- 6.3.3 PolyHeme -- 6.3.4 MP4OX -- 6.3.5 Recombinant Human Hb -- 6.3.6 Adverse Effects of HBOCs -- 6.3.7 HBOCs in Trauma: A Way Forward? -- 6.4 Conclusion -- References -- 7 Diagnosis and Treatment of Haemorrhages in 'Nonsurgical' Patients -- 7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 Aetiopathogenetic Classification -- 7.1.2 Multifactorial Pathogenesis -- 7.1.3 Haemorrhagic Syndromes from Antithrombotic Treatment or Prophylaxis -- 7.2 Clinical Assessment -- 7.2.1 Medical History -- 7.2.2 Physical Examination -- 7.3 Laboratory Tests -- 7.3.1 Screening Tests -- 7.3.2 Second-level Laboratory Tests -- 7.3.3 Other Tests -- 7.4 Haemorrhagic Syndromes Clinically Indicative of Systemic Defects with Normal Screening Tests -- 7.5 Blood and Blood Components in the Treatment of Haemorrhagic Syndromes -- Further Reading -- 8. Management of Perioperative Bleeding -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Pathomechanisms of Coagulopathy in Massive Bleeding -- 8.3 Perioperative Coagulation Monitoring -- 8.4 Limitations of Routine Coagulation Tests in the Perioperative Setting -- 8.5 Thromboelastography (TEG) and Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) -- 8.6 Procoagulant Interventions -- 8.7 Algorithm for Coagulation Management -- References -- 9. Oxygenation in the Preterm Neonate -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Physiology of Oxygen Transport in Fetal and Postnatal Life -- 9.2.1 Oxygenation of the Fetus -- 9.2.2 Measuring Oxygenation in the Neonate -- 9.3 Oxygen Therapy in the Postnatal Period -- 9.3.1 Oxidative Stresses in the Newborn Period -- 9.3.2 Clinical Sequelae of Hyperoxia -- 9.3.2.1 Retinopathy of Prematurity -- 9.3.2.2 Oxygen and Chronic Lung Disease -- 9.3.2.3 Oxygen and Periventricular Leukomalacia -- 9.4 Oxygen and Resuscitation of the Newborn Infant -- 9.5 Transfusion in the Newborn -- 9.6 ROP and Transfusions -- 9.7 Conclusion -- References -- 10. Ischemia -- 10.1 Introduction -- 10.2 Pathophysiology -- 10.2.1 Energy Failure -- 10.2.2 Cell Membrane Damage -- 10.2.3 Increased Cytosolic Calcium -- 10.2.4 Inflammation -- 10.2.5 The No-reflow Phenomenon -- 10.2.6 Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species -- 10.2.7 Excitotoxicity
10.3 Therapeutic Potentials -- 10.3.1 Preconditioning -- 10.3.2 Antioxidants -- 10.3.3 Anti-inflammation Therapy -- 10.3.4 Therapeutic Hypothermia -- 10.3.5 Hydrogen Sulfide -- 10.3.6 Hyperoxia and Hyperbaric Oxygen -- 10.3.7 Hemoglobin-based Oxygen Carriers -- 10.4 Conclusion -- References -- 11. Normobaric and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Ischemic Stroke and Other Neurological Conditions -- 11.1 Introduction -- 11.2 Rationale of Oxygen Therapy in AIS -- 11.3 Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy -- 11.4 Normobaric Oxygen Therapy -- 11.5 The Status of Supplemental Oxygen Delivery -- 11.6 Comparison of HBO and NBO in AIS -- 11.7 Safety Concerns -- 11.8 HBO and NBO in Other Conditions -- 11.9 Conclusion -- References -- 12 Transfusion Therapy in β Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Disease -- 12.1 Introduction -- 12.2 β Thalassemia and Transfusion -- 12.3 Sickle Cell Disease and Transfusion -- 12.4 Iron Chelation Tools -- 12.5 Conclusion -- References -- Part III "Old" and New Strategies for Oxygen Supply -- 13. Transfusion: Political, Administrative and Logistic Issues -- 13.1 Introduction -- 13.2 Blood Safety -- 13.3 Blood Availability -- 13.4 Cost and Fairness -- 13.5 Transfusion Medicine -- References -- 14. Conscientious Objection in Patient Blood Management -- 14.1 Introduction -- 14.2 Conscientious Objection -- 14.3 Patient Blood Management -- 14.4 JehovahŁfs Witnesses -- 14.5 Will the Real Objection Please Stand Up? -- 14.6 Conscientious Objection in Relation to Oxygen Therapeutics and Other Innovations -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 15. Red-cell Transfusion in Clinical Practice -- 15.1 Introduction -- 15.2 Red-cell Use -- 15.3 The Red-cell-transfusion Trigger -- 15.4 Risks of Red-cell Transfusion -- 15.5 Conclusion -- Disclaimer -- References -- 16. Causes and Consequences of Red Cell Incompatibility -- 16.1 Introduction -- 16.2 Red Cell Antigens
16.2.1 ABO and the H System -- 16.2.2 The Lewis System and Structurally Related Antigens -- 16.2.3 The Rh System -- 16.2.4 Other Blood Group Systems -- 16.3 Red Cell Antibodies -- 16.3.1 Naturally Occurring Antibodies and Immune Antibodies -- 16.3.2 Autoantibodies -- 16.3.3 Drug Induced Antibodies -- 16.4 Compatibility Testing -- 16.4.1 ABO and Rh D Typing -- 16.4.2 Antibody Screening and Identification -- 16.4.3 Selection of Appropriate Blood -- 16.4.4 Crossmatch Testing -- 16.5 Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions -- 16.5.1 Pathophysiology -- 16.5.2 Prevention -- References -- 17. Biochemistry of Storage of Red Blood Cells -- 17.1 Introduction -- 17.2 Pathologic Consequences of Transfusion with Aged RBCs -- 17.3 Changes in Oxygen Affinity During RBC Storage -- 17.4 Role of Oxidative Damage During RBC Storage -- 17.5 Changes in the Physical Properties of RBCs During Storage -- 17.6 RBCs as Modulators of Vascular Flow -- 17.6.1 ATP Release Hypothesis -- 17.6.2 SNO-hemoglobin Hypothesis -- 17.6.3 Nitrite Reductase/Anhydrase Hypothesis -- 17.7 RBC-dependent Modulation of Inflammation -- 17.8 Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- References -- 18. Proteomic Investigations of Stored Red Blood Cells -- 18.1 Introduction -- 18.2 RBC Ageing and Metabolism in vivo -- 18.3 RBC Storage Lesions Through Proteomics -- 18.4 Conclusion -- References -- 19. Red Blood Cells from Stem Cells -- 19.1 Introduction -- 19.2 Stem-cell Sources for ex vivo Generation of Erythroid Cells as a Transfusion Product -- 19.3 Conditions that Favor ex vivo Erythroid Cell Expansion -- 19.4 A Clinical-grade Production Process for ex vivo Generation of Red-cell Transfusion Products -- 19.4.1 The Nature of the Production Process -- 19.4.2 Cellular Composition of the Product -- 19.4.3 Functional Status of Product -- 19.4.4 Safety Considerations
19.5 Time Line of the Clinical Application of ex vivo-generated Erythroid Cells
Human blood performs many important functions including defence against disease and transport of biomolecules, but perhaps the most important is to carry oxygen - the fundamental biochemical fuel - and other blood gases around the cardiovascular system. Traditional therapies for the impairment of this function, or the rapid replacement of lost blood, have centred around blood transfusions. However scientists are developing chemicals (oxygen therapeutics, or "blood substitutes") which have the same oxygen-carrying capability as blood and can be used as replacements for blood transfusion or to treat diseases where oxygen transport is impaired. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Oxygen Therapeutics: From Transfusion to Artificial Blood links the underlying biochemical principles of the field with chemical and biotechnological innovations and pre-clinical development. The first part of the book deals with the chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and toxicity of oxygen, including chapters on hemoglobin reactivity and regulation; the major cellular and physiological control mechanisms of blood flow and oxygen delivery; hemoglobin and myoglobin; nitric oxide and oxygen; and the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in ischemia/reperfusion Injury. The book then discusses medical needs for oxygen supply, including acute traumatic hemorrhage and anemia; diagnosis and treatment of haemorrhages in "non-surgical" patients; management of perioperative bleeding; oxygenation in the preterm neonate; ischemia normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy for ischemic stroke and other neurological conditions; and transfusion therapy in β thalassemia and sickle cell disease Finally "old"and new strategies for oxygen supply are described. These include the political, administrative and logistic issues surrounding transfusion; conscientious objection in
patient blood management; causes and consequences of red cell incompatibility; biochemistry of red blood cell storage; proteomic investigations on stored red blood cells; red blood cells from stem cells; the universal red blood cell; allosteric effectors of hemoglobin; hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers; oxygen delivery by natural and artificial oxygen carriers; cross-linked and polymerized hemoglobins as potential blood substitutes; design of novel pegylated hemoglobins as oxygen carrying plasma expanders; hb octamers by introduction of surface cysteines; hemoglobin-vesicles as a cellular type hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier; animal models and oxidative biomarkers to evaluate pre-clinical safety of extracellular hemoglobins; and academia - industry collaboration in blood substitute development. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Oxygen Therapeutics: From Transfusion to Artificial Blood is an essential reference for clinicians, haematologists, medicinal chemists, biochemists, molecular biologists, biotechnologists and blood substitute researchers
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Mozzarelli, Andrea Chemistry and Biochemistry of Oxygen Therapeutics : From Transfusion to Artificial Blood Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated,c2011 9780470686683
Subject Oxygen therapy.;Oxigen -- Physiological effect.;Nitric oxide -- Physiological effect
Electronic books
Alt Author Bettati, Stefano
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