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Author Roth, Ryan M
Title Crystal ion slicing of optical oxides and plasmon-enhanced optical applications
Descript 150 p
Note Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 68-01, Section: B, page: 0364
Adviser: Richard M. Osgood
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Columbia University, 2007
The past three decades have been witness to rapid growth in the microelectronics and optoelectronic industries. A principal reason for this growth is the emergence and development of new materials, concepts and techniques for integrated device technologies that allow devices with complex functionalities to be miniaturized and combined on the chip-scale. In particular, technologies that allow for the fabrication of heterogeneous thin film structures have been especially valuable. One such technology, Crystal Ion Slicing (CIS), was developed at Columbia University and has been refined in recent years. CIS uses high-energy ion bombardment to exfoliate or 'slice' a thin, high-quality layer from the top surface of a parent optical crystal. Because the fabricated films produced by this technique share the physical, optical and electrical properties of the parent crystal, they are often superior to films achievable through other methods
In addition to thin oxide-film technology advances, there has been in recent years considerable interest in the emerging field of plasmonics. Plasmonics refers to the collection of integrated optical devices that utilize surface plasmon-polaritons generated at the interface of a metal and a dielectric, and the theories of their operation. The plasmons used in these devices may either be propagating or 'localized' plasmon resonances, are characterized by the exceptionally large electric field they carry, and in many cases demonstrate non-intuitive and startling physical behavior. Plasmonic device geometries have been intently studied because they possess great potential for nanoscale optical components, including devices whose principal feature sizes are smaller than the wavelength of light that they manipulate. This would in turn allow for hereto-unachievable levels of miniaturization and integration, reducing operational power and unit costs while increasing functionality. Unfortunately, the physics that govern plasmon interactions with material systems and photons is still not perfectly understood, and fabrication of devices on this size scale remains a significant challenge
This thesis work is divided into two parts. In the first part (Chapters 1--3), recent advances in our understanding of the CIS process are discussed. While the CIS method has in recent years been used extensively to create numerous optical devices, little effort was made to understand the underlying material processes involved or optimize them to produce better films. To rectify this, the CIS processing of two material systems were examined using ion-beam analysis and microscopy techniques. LiNbO3, which has a well-developed CIS process, is examined first, using Rutherford backscattering, channeling, nuclear reaction analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. These techniques allow for the direct measurement of the lattice disruption caused by the ion-implantation and how that disruption evolves with processing. The importance and effect of pre-slicing annealing is demonstrated, and an optimal annealing condition is determined for the ion implantation conditions investigated
The second material system investigated is SrTiO3, a system for which, in comparison to LiNbO3, the CIS process is less developed. As with LiNbO3, ion beam techniques reveal the character of the lattice disruption caused by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. An optimal annealing condition is located for the implantation conditions examined. In addition, the surface quality of produced CIS film is characterized with atomic force microscopy. Its initial surface structure is discussed, and it is shown that simple mechanical polishing can be used to produce sub-nm surface roughness on the undercut side of the film
In Chapter 3, a new CIS optical device, a Fabry-Perot integrated optical filter, is demonstrated. This device consists of a freestanding CIS film of LiNbO3 that has been coated on both sides by a uniform Ag mirror layer. This device, approximately 10 mum thick, is manually inserted into a narrow trench that bisects optical waveguides running along a Si block. Light passing down the waveguides is filtered by the optical cavity of the film and is collected on the opposing end. This device has the advantages of having a large free spectral range, having a small chip-area footprint, and may filter multiple waveguides with a single film
The second part of this thesis (Chapters 4--6) discusses simulation and experimental work for two plasmonic geometries that exemplify two distinct plasmon-related phenomena: field enhancement and extraordinary transmission. The first is an investigation of localized plasmon resonances established in a narrow region between a sharp metallic tip (such as might be found in a scanning electron microscope) and a semi-infinite metallic substrate. The resonances act to enhance the electric field in the vicinity of the tip apex; this is effect is very valuable because it can be used to enhance the sensitivity of many microscopy techniques. While not an integrated optical device, the metal tip-substrate system involves many of the same principles and the numerical methods used to study it may be applied to many other plasmonic systems. The tip-substrate interaction was modeled extensively using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method; simulations confirm that the tip-local electric field is enhanced ∼70x due to plasmon resonances. The effects of changes in the physical and optical geometry on this enhancement factor are explored, as is the spectral response of the system. Tip-enhanced Raman scattering experiments were carried out and verify the degree of field enhancement
Chapter 6 demonstrates the design of a new plasmonic device structure that demonstrates the phenomenon of plasmon-assisted extraordinary transmission. This device consists of a metallic layer that has been perforated with a structured array of subwavelength asymmetric cruciform apertures. Light incident on the array can couple into localized and extended surface plasmons that, for specific wavelengths, enable the transfer of power through the film. This results in transmission that can be three orders of magnitude greater than what is expected from classical diffraction theory. However, because of the asymmetric aperture design, the transmission response of the device is dependent on the polarization of the incident light, and can be easily tuned. In this chapter, this device design is modeled, using the Rigorously-Coupled Wave Analysis method. The transmission characteristics of the device are simulated, and the field structure established within the cross apertures is determined. Finally, the initial attempts at fabricating this structure using electron beam lithography are presented
School code: 0054
Host Item Dissertation Abstracts International 68-01B
Subject Physics, Condensed Matter
Physics, Optics
Alt Author Columbia University
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