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Author Pantopoulos, Kostas
Title Principles of Free Radical Biomedicine
Imprint New York : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2011
©2012
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (330 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Series Biochemistry Research Trends
Biochemistry Research Trends
Note Intro -- PRINCIPLES OF FREE RADICAL BIOMEDICINE -- PRINCIPLES OF FREE RADICAL BIOMEDICINE -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- The Evolution of Oxidative Stress -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The Origin and Significance of Chemiosmotic Coupling -- 3. The Origin and Consequences of an Oxygen Atmosphere -- 4. Oxidative Stress and the Chimeric Origin of Eukaryotes -- 5. Why Oxidative Stress Is Central to the Evolution of Eukaryotes -- References -- Oxygen Radicals and Related Species -- 1. Introduction : Oxygen and its Metabolites Imprinted the Evolution of Life -- 2. Molecular Oxygen, a Sluggish Oxidant -- 3. Producer of Reactive Species -- 3. Free Radicals in Biology: An Historical Account -- 4. Oxygen Radicals and Related Species: General Aspects of the Reactivity of One- and Two-electron Oxidants -- 5. Chemistry of Biologically Relevant Oxygen-Derived Radicals -- 5.1. Superoxide (O2●-) and Hydroperoxyl (HO2●-) Radical -- 5.2. Hydroxyl Radical (HO●) -- 5.3. Carbonate Radical (CO3●-) -- 5.4. Peroxyl(ROO●) and Alkoxyl (RO●) Radicals -- 6. Chemistry of Biologically Relevant Non-radical Oxygen Species -- 6.1. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) -- 6.2. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and Related Species -- 6.3. Singlet Molecular Oxygen (1O2) -- 6.4. Organic Hydroperoxides from Biomolecules -- 6.5. Ozone (O3) -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Nitric Oxide and Derived Oxidants -- Introduction -- 2. Chemistry of Nitric Oxide and Related Nitrogen Species -- 3. Nitric Oxide -- 3.1. Formation and Signaling Actions -- 3.2. Chemical and Physico-chemical Properties of Nitric Oxide -- 3.3. Reaction Chemistry -- 4. Nitrogen Dioxide -- 4.1. Formation -- 4.2. Chemical Properties -- 4.3. Reaction Chemistry -- 5. Peroxynitrite -- 5.1. Formation -- 5.2. Chemical Properties -- 5.3. Reaction Chemistry -- 6. Nitrite and Nitrate
7. Dinitrogen Trioxide and Dinitrogen Tetraoxide -- 8. Nitryl Chloride -- 9. Diffusion of Reactive Nitrogen Species in Biological Systems -- 10. Reactivity of Nitric Oxide and Derived Oxidants with Selected Biomolecules -- 10.1. Metal Centers: Nitrosylation and Redox Reactions -- 10.2. Thiols: S-nitrosylation and Oxidation Reactions -- 10.3. Tyrosine: Nitration and other Oxidation Reactions -- 10.4. Reaction of Reactive Nitrogen Species with other Amino Acids -- 10.5. Lipids -- 10.6. Sugars -- 10.7. Nitrogen Bases -- 10.8. Low Molecular Weight Antioxidants -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Sulfur-centered Radicals -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Formation of Thiyl and Perthiyl Radicals -- 3. Reactions of Thiyl Radicals -- 4. Reactions of Perthiyl Radicals -- 5. Formation of Met Radical Cations -- 6. Reactions of Met Radical Cations -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgment -- References -- Redox-Active Metals: Iron and Copper -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Redox Active Iron and Copper In Vivo -- 3. Biological Oxidants -- 4. Redox Chemistry and Biochemistry of Iron: The Historical Context -- 5. Biological Relevance of the Fenton Reaction -- 6. Cautionary Remarks -- Conclusions -- References -- Protein Oxidation -- 1. Introduction: Why does Protein Damage Matter? -- 2. How does Damage Occur? -- 3. Chemistry of Protein Oxidation -- 3.1. Backbone Damage -- 3.2. Aliphatic Residues -- 3.3. Carbonylated Proteins -- 3.4. Oxidation of Sulfur Centers -- 3.5. Oxidation of Aromatic Residues -- 4. Oxidative Modifications of Amino Acid Residues due to RNS -- 4.1. 3-Nitrotyrosine -- 5. Reactions of Relevant Oxidants -- 5.1. Hydroxyl Radical -- 5.2. Superoxide Anion Radical and Hydrogen Peroxide -- 5.3. Hypochlorite -- 5.4. Chloramines -- 6. Protein Aggregation due to Oxidation -- 7. Repair of Protein Damage -- 7.1. Methione Sulfoxide Reductase
7.2. Thioredoxin/thioredoxin Reductase System -- 7.3. Protein Disulfide Isomerase -- 8. Degradation of Oxidatively Damaged Proteins -- 8.1. The Proteasomal System -- 8.2. The Lysosomal System -- 9. Detection of Protein Damage -- 9.1. Protein Carbonyls -- 9.2. Protein Thiol Groups -- 9.3. Protein-bound Nitrotyrosine -- Conclusions -- References -- Lipid Peroxidation -- Abbreviations -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Origin and Physiological Role of PUFAs -- 3. Lipid Peroxidation in Cellular Membranes -- 4. Mechanisms of Lipid Peroxidation -- 5. Enzymatic Lipid Peroxidation by Lipoxygenases -- 6. Non-enzymatic Lipid Peroxidation -- 7. Peroxidation Products of Membrane Phospholipids -- 8. Generation of Oxidized Phospholipids by Lipid Peroxidation -- 9. Generation of Hydroxy-alkenals by Lipid Peroxidation of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs -- 10. Biomarkers of Lipid Peroxidation: Isoprostanes, Isofurans and Neuroprostanes -- 11. Analytical Methods for Studying Lipid Peroxidation in Membranes -- 12. Covalent Modification of Proteins and Amino-phospholipids by Lipid Peroxidation Products -- 13. Damage of Cellular Membranes by Lipid Peroxidation -- 14. In Vivo Reactivity of Hydroxy-Alkenals -- 15. 4-HNE Regulates Mitochondrial Uncoupling -- 16. Hydroxy-alkenals as Second Messengers -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Lipid Nitration -- Introduction -- 2. Nitration of Biomolecules -- 3. Biological Aspects and Distribution of Unsaturated Fatty Acids -- 4. Nitration Chemistry in Hydrophobic Compartments -- 5. Mechanisms of Fatty Acid nitration -- 5.1. Nitric Oxide-dependent Mechanisms -- 5.2. Nitrogen Dioxide-dependent Mechanisms -- 5.3. Peroxynitrite-dependent Mechanisms -- 6. Biochemical Characterization of Nitro-fatty Acids -- 7. Biological Stability of Nitro-fatty Acids: NO-donor Properties and Post-translational Modification of Proteins
8. Metabolic Fate of Nitro-fatty Acids -- 9. Cell Signaling and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Nitrated Lipids -- 9.1. Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Function -- 9.2. Modulation of Transcription Factors -- 10. In Vivo Detection of Nitrosyl-fatty Acids: Current Knowledge, Challenges and Potential Pitfalls -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- DNA Oxidation -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Oxidation of DNA Components by Free Radicals: Mechanistic Aspects of Formation of Single Lesions -- 2.1. One Electron and HO-mediated Formation of DNA Lesions -- 2.2. Thymine -- 2.3. Cytosine -- 2.4. Guanine -- 2.5. Adenine -- 2.6. Singlet Oxygen-mediated DNA Oxidation -- 3. Complex DNA Lesions Generated by a Single Oxidation Event -- 3.1. DNA-protein Cross-links -- 3.2. Complex Lesions Arising from Sugar Oxidation -- 3.3. Tandem DNA Lesions -- 4. Method for Measuring Oxidative DNA Lesions in Cells -- 4.1. Direct Approaches -- 4.2. Indirect Approaches -- Conclusions -- References -- Methods of Investigation of Selected Radical Oxygen/Nitrogen Species in Cell-free and Cellular Systems -- 1. Introduction -- 2. General Principles of the Detection of Free Radicals in Chemical and Biological Systems -- 2.1. Methods of Investigation of Free Radicals -- 2.2. Probes for Free Radical Detection -- Spectrophotometric Probes -- Chemiluminescent Probes -- Fluorogenic Probes -- EPR Spin Traps and Probes -- The Properties of the Ideal Probe -- Reactivity of the Intermediates of the Reaction between the Probe and Radical R -- 2.3. Radical Footprints -- 2.4. Scavengers and Inhibitors -- 3. Methods of Generation and Detection of Selected Free Radicals -- 3.1. General Considerations -- 3.1.1. Methods of Free Radical Generation -- 3.1.1.1. Pulse Methods -- Pulse Radiolysis -- Laser Flash Photolysis -- Stopped Flow -- 3.1.1.2. Steady-state Methods
a) Chemical (thermal) Generation of the Radicals -- b) Enzymatic Generation of the Radicals -- c) Radiation-chemical and Photolytic Generation -- 3.1.2. Principles of the Analytical Methods of Radical Detection -- Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) -- UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy -- Fluorescence Spectroscopy -- High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) -- 3.2. Superoxide Radical Anion (O2-) -- 3.2.1. Physicochemical Properties -- 3.2.2. Generation -- 3.2.2.1. Cell-free Systems -- Solutions of O2- in Aprotic Solvents -- Thermal Sources of Superoxide -- Radiolytic Generation of Superoxide -- Enzymatic Generation of Superoxide -- 3.2.2.2. Cellular Systems -- 3.2.3. Detection -- Ferricytochrome C Assay -- EPR Spin-trapping -- Measurement of Intracellular O2- Production -- Hydroethidine Assay -- Aconitase Inactivation Assay -- Other Assays for Intracellular Superoxide -- 3.2.4. Inhibitors of O2- Production and O2- Scavengers -- 3.3. Nitric Oxide (NO) -- 3.3.1. Physicochemical Properties -- 3.3.2. Generation -- 3.3.2.1. Cell-free Systems -- 3.3.2.2. Biological Systems -- 3.3.3. Detection -- 3.3.3.1. Cell-free Systems -- Electrochemical Detection -- Chemiluminescence Detection -- Oxyhemoglobin Assay -- Assays Based on Fluorescent Aromatic Triazole Formation -- EPR Spin-trapping -- Griess Assay for Nitrite Anion -- 3.3.3.2. Biological Systems -- 3.3.4. Inhibitors and Scavengers -- 3.4. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) -- 3.4.1. Physicochemical Properties -- 3.4.2. Generation -- 3.4.2.1. Cell-free Systems -- 3.4.2.2. Biological Systems -- 3.4.3. Detection -- 3.4.3.1. Cell-free Systems -- 3.4.3.2. Biological Systems -- 3.4.4. Inhibitors and Scavengers -- 3.5. Carbonate Radical Anion (CO3-) -- 3.5.1. Physicochemical Properties -- 3.5.2. Generation -- 3.5.2.1. Cell-free Systems -- 3.5.2.2. Biological Systems -- 3.5.3. Detection
3.5.3.1. Cell-free Systems
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Pantopoulos, Kostas Principles of Free Radical Biomedicine New York : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated,c2011 9781612097732
Subject Free radicals (Chemistry);Free radical reactions
Electronic books
Alt Author Schipper, Hyman M
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