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100 1  Pantopoulos, Kostas 
245 10 Principles of Free Radical Biomedicine 
264  1 New York :|bNova Science Publishers, Incorporated,|c2011 
264  4 |c©2012 
300    1 online resource (330 pages) 
336    text|btxt|2rdacontent 
337    computer|bc|2rdamedia 
338    online resource|bcr|2rdacarrier 
490 1  Biochemistry Research Trends 
505 0  Intro -- PRINCIPLES OF FREE  RADICAL BIOMEDICINE -- 
       PRINCIPLES OF FREE  RADICAL BIOMEDICINE -- Contents -- 
       Preface -- Acknowledgments -- The Evolution of Oxidative 
       Stress -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The Origin and 
       Significance  of Chemiosmotic Coupling -- 3. The Origin 
       and Consequences  of an Oxygen Atmosphere -- 4. Oxidative 
       Stress and the Chimeric  Origin of Eukaryotes -- 5. Why 
       Oxidative Stress Is Central  to the Evolution of 
       Eukaryotes -- References -- Oxygen Radicals and Related 
       Species -- 1. Introduction : Oxygen and its Metabolites 
       Imprinted the Evolution of Life -- 2. Molecular Oxygen, a 
       Sluggish Oxidant -- 3. Producer of Reactive Species -- 3. 
       Free Radicals in Biology: An Historical Account -- 4. 
       Oxygen Radicals and Related Species:  General Aspects of 
       the Reactivity of One-  and Two-electron Oxidants -- 5. 
       Chemistry of Biologically Relevant  Oxygen-Derived 
       Radicals -- 5.1. Superoxide (O2●-) and Hydroperoxyl 
       (HO2●-) Radical -- 5.2. Hydroxyl Radical (HO●) -- 5.3. 
       Carbonate Radical (CO3●-) -- 5.4. Peroxyl(ROO●) and 
       Alkoxyl (RO●) Radicals -- 6. Chemistry of Biologically 
       Relevant  Non-radical Oxygen Species -- 6.1. Hydrogen 
       Peroxide (H2O2) -- 6.2. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and 
       Related Species -- 6.3. Singlet Molecular Oxygen (1O2) -- 
       6.4. Organic Hydroperoxides from Biomolecules -- 6.5. 
       Ozone (O3) -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References
       -- Nitric Oxide and Derived Oxidants -- Introduction -- 2.
       Chemistry of Nitric Oxide  and Related Nitrogen Species --
       3. Nitric Oxide -- 3.1. Formation and Signaling Actions --
       3.2. Chemical and Physico-chemical Properties of Nitric 
       Oxide -- 3.3. Reaction Chemistry -- 4. Nitrogen Dioxide --
       4.1. Formation -- 4.2. Chemical Properties -- 4.3. 
       Reaction Chemistry -- 5. Peroxynitrite -- 5.1. Formation -
       - 5.2. Chemical Properties -- 5.3. Reaction Chemistry -- 
       6. Nitrite and Nitrate 
505 8  7. Dinitrogen Trioxide and Dinitrogen Tetraoxide -- 8. 
       Nitryl Chloride -- 9. Diffusion of Reactive Nitrogen 
       Species in Biological Systems -- 10. Reactivity of Nitric 
       Oxide and Derived Oxidants with Selected Biomolecules -- 
       10.1. Metal Centers: Nitrosylation and Redox Reactions -- 
       10.2. Thiols: S-nitrosylation and Oxidation Reactions -- 
       10.3. Tyrosine: Nitration and other Oxidation Reactions --
       10.4. Reaction of Reactive Nitrogen Species  with other 
       Amino Acids -- 10.5. Lipids -- 10.6. Sugars -- 10.7. 
       Nitrogen Bases -- 10.8. Low Molecular Weight Antioxidants 
       -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Sulfur-
       centered Radicals -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Formation of 
       Thiyl and Perthiyl Radicals -- 3. Reactions of Thiyl 
       Radicals -- 4. Reactions of Perthiyl Radicals -- 5. 
       Formation of Met Radical Cations -- 6. Reactions of Met 
       Radical Cations -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgment -- 
       References -- Redox-Active Metals: Iron and Copper -- 1. 
       Introduction -- 2. Redox Active Iron and Copper In Vivo --
       3. Biological Oxidants -- 4. Redox Chemistry and 
       Biochemistry of Iron:  The Historical Context -- 5. 
       Biological Relevance of the Fenton Reaction -- 6. 
       Cautionary Remarks -- Conclusions -- References -- Protein
       Oxidation -- 1. Introduction: Why does Protein Damage 
       Matter? -- 2. How does Damage Occur? -- 3. Chemistry of 
       Protein Oxidation -- 3.1. Backbone Damage -- 3.2. 
       Aliphatic Residues -- 3.3. Carbonylated Proteins -- 3.4. 
       Oxidation of Sulfur Centers -- 3.5. Oxidation of Aromatic 
       Residues -- 4. Oxidative Modifications of Amino  Acid 
       Residues due to RNS -- 4.1. 3-Nitrotyrosine -- 5. 
       Reactions of Relevant Oxidants -- 5.1. Hydroxyl Radical --
       5.2. Superoxide Anion Radical and Hydrogen Peroxide -- 
       5.3. Hypochlorite -- 5.4. Chloramines -- 6. Protein 
       Aggregation due to Oxidation -- 7. Repair of Protein 
       Damage -- 7.1. Methione Sulfoxide Reductase 
505 8  7.2. Thioredoxin/thioredoxin Reductase System -- 7.3. 
       Protein Disulfide Isomerase -- 8. Degradation of 
       Oxidatively Damaged Proteins -- 8.1. The Proteasomal 
       System -- 8.2. The Lysosomal System -- 9. Detection of 
       Protein Damage -- 9.1. Protein Carbonyls -- 9.2. Protein 
       Thiol Groups -- 9.3. Protein-bound Nitrotyrosine -- 
       Conclusions -- References -- Lipid Peroxidation -- 
       Abbreviations -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Origin and 
       Physiological Role of PUFAs -- 3. Lipid Peroxidation in 
       Cellular Membranes -- 4. Mechanisms of Lipid Peroxidation 
       -- 5. Enzymatic Lipid Peroxidation by Lipoxygenases -- 6. 
       Non-enzymatic Lipid Peroxidation -- 7. Peroxidation 
       Products  of Membrane Phospholipids -- 8. Generation of 
       Oxidized Phospholipids  by Lipid Peroxidation -- 9. 
       Generation of Hydroxy-alkenals by Lipid Peroxidation of n-
       3 and n-6 PUFAs -- 10. Biomarkers of Lipid Peroxidation: 
       Isoprostanes, Isofurans and Neuroprostanes -- 11. 
       Analytical Methods for Studying Lipid Peroxidation in 
       Membranes -- 12. Covalent Modification of Proteins and 
       Amino-phospholipids by Lipid Peroxidation Products -- 13. 
       Damage of Cellular Membranes  by Lipid Peroxidation -- 14.
       In Vivo Reactivity of Hydroxy-Alkenals -- 15. 4-HNE 
       Regulates Mitochondrial Uncoupling -- 16. Hydroxy-alkenals
       as Second Messengers -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- 
       References -- Lipid Nitration -- Introduction -- 2. 
       Nitration of Biomolecules -- 3. Biological Aspects and 
       Distribution  of Unsaturated Fatty Acids -- 4. Nitration 
       Chemistry  in Hydrophobic Compartments -- 5. Mechanisms of
       Fatty Acid nitration -- 5.1. Nitric Oxide-dependent 
       Mechanisms -- 5.2. Nitrogen Dioxide-dependent Mechanisms -
       - 5.3. Peroxynitrite-dependent Mechanisms -- 6. 
       Biochemical Characterization  of Nitro-fatty Acids -- 7. 
       Biological Stability of Nitro-fatty Acids: NO-donor 
       Properties and Post-translational Modification of Proteins
505 8  8. Metabolic Fate of Nitro-fatty Acids -- 9. Cell 
       Signaling and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Nitrated 
       Lipids -- 9.1. Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Function --
       9.2. Modulation of Transcription Factors -- 10. In Vivo 
       Detection of Nitrosyl-fatty Acids: Current Knowledge, 
       Challenges and Potential Pitfalls -- Conclusions -- 
       Acknowledgments -- References -- DNA Oxidation -- 1. 
       Introduction -- 2. Oxidation of DNA Components by Free 
       Radicals: Mechanistic Aspects  of Formation of Single 
       Lesions -- 2.1. One Electron and HO-mediated Formation of 
       DNA Lesions -- 2.2. Thymine -- 2.3. Cytosine -- 2.4. 
       Guanine -- 2.5. Adenine -- 2.6. Singlet Oxygen-mediated 
       DNA Oxidation -- 3. Complex DNA Lesions Generated  by a 
       Single Oxidation Event -- 3.1. DNA-protein Cross-links -- 
       3.2. Complex Lesions Arising from Sugar Oxidation -- 3.3. 
       Tandem DNA Lesions -- 4. Method for Measuring Oxidative  
       DNA Lesions in Cells -- 4.1. Direct Approaches -- 4.2. 
       Indirect Approaches -- Conclusions -- References -- 
       Methods of Investigation of Selected Radical Oxygen/
       Nitrogen Species  in Cell-free and Cellular Systems -- 1. 
       Introduction -- 2. General Principles of the Detection of 
       Free Radicals in Chemical and Biological Systems -- 2.1. 
       Methods of Investigation of Free Radicals -- 2.2. Probes 
       for Free Radical Detection -- Spectrophotometric Probes --
       Chemiluminescent Probes -- Fluorogenic Probes -- EPR Spin 
       Traps and Probes -- The Properties of the Ideal Probe -- 
       Reactivity of the Intermediates of the Reaction between 
       the Probe and Radical R -- 2.3. Radical Footprints -- 2.4.
       Scavengers and Inhibitors -- 3. Methods of Generation and 
       Detection  of Selected Free Radicals -- 3.1. General 
       Considerations -- 3.1.1. Methods of Free Radical 
       Generation -- 3.1.1.1. Pulse Methods -- Pulse Radiolysis -
       - Laser Flash Photolysis -- Stopped Flow -- 3.1.1.2. 
       Steady-state Methods 
505 8  a) Chemical (thermal) Generation of the Radicals -- b) 
       Enzymatic Generation of the Radicals -- c) Radiation-
       chemical and Photolytic Generation -- 3.1.2. Principles of
       the Analytical Methods of Radical Detection -- Electron 
       Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) -- UV-Vis Absorption 
       Spectroscopy -- Fluorescence Spectroscopy -- High 
       Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) -- 3.2. 
       Superoxide Radical Anion (O2-) -- 3.2.1. Physicochemical 
       Properties -- 3.2.2. Generation -- 3.2.2.1. Cell-free 
       Systems -- Solutions of O2- in Aprotic Solvents -- Thermal
       Sources of Superoxide -- Radiolytic Generation of 
       Superoxide -- Enzymatic Generation of Superoxide -- 
       3.2.2.2. Cellular Systems -- 3.2.3. Detection -- 
       Ferricytochrome C Assay -- EPR Spin-trapping -- 
       Measurement of Intracellular O2- Production -- 
       Hydroethidine Assay -- Aconitase Inactivation Assay -- 
       Other Assays for Intracellular Superoxide -- 3.2.4. 
       Inhibitors of O2- Production and O2- Scavengers -- 3.3. 
       Nitric Oxide (NO) -- 3.3.1. Physicochemical Properties -- 
       3.3.2. Generation -- 3.3.2.1. Cell-free Systems -- 
       3.3.2.2. Biological Systems -- 3.3.3. Detection -- 
       3.3.3.1. Cell-free Systems -- Electrochemical Detection --
       Chemiluminescence Detection -- Oxyhemoglobin Assay -- 
       Assays Based on Fluorescent Aromatic Triazole Formation --
       EPR Spin-trapping -- Griess Assay for Nitrite Anion -- 
       3.3.3.2. Biological Systems -- 3.3.4. Inhibitors and 
       Scavengers -- 3.4. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) -- 3.4.1. 
       Physicochemical Properties -- 3.4.2. Generation -- 
       3.4.2.1. Cell-free Systems -- 3.4.2.2. Biological Systems 
       -- 3.4.3. Detection -- 3.4.3.1. Cell-free Systems -- 
       3.4.3.2. Biological Systems -- 3.4.4. Inhibitors and 
       Scavengers -- 3.5. Carbonate Radical Anion (CO3-) -- 
       3.5.1. Physicochemical Properties -- 3.5.2. Generation -- 
       3.5.2.1. Cell-free Systems -- 3.5.2.2. Biological Systems 
       -- 3.5.3. Detection 
505 8  3.5.3.1. Cell-free Systems 
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650  0 Free radicals (Chemistry);Free radical reactions 
655  4 Electronic books 
700 1  Schipper, Hyman M 
776 08 |iPrint version:|aPantopoulos, Kostas|tPrinciples of Free 
       Radical Biomedicine|dNew York : Nova Science Publishers, 
       Incorporated,c2011|z9781612097732 
830  0 Biochemistry Research Trends 
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