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Author Yang, Shang-Tian
Title Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers : In Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers
Imprint Somerset : American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2013
©2013
book jacket
Edition 1st ed
Descript 1 online resource (489 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Cover -- Title page -- Copyright page -- Contents -- Preface -- Contributors -- 1: Integrated Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 Biorefineries Using Corn, Soybeans, and Sugarcane -- 1.2.1 Corn Refinery -- 1.2.2 Soybean Biorefinery -- 1.2.3 Sugarcane Biorefinery -- 1.3 Lignocellulosic Biorefinery -- 1.3.1 Pretreatment -- 1.3.2 Cellulose Hydrolysis and Saccharification -- 1.3.3 Fermentation -- 1.3.4 Plant Genetic Engineering to Improve Biomass Feedstock -- 1.3.5 Thermochemical Platform for Lignocellulosic Biorefinery -- 1.4 Aquacultures and Algae Biorefinery -- 1.5 Chemical and Biological Conversions for Fuel and Chemical Production -- 1.5.1 Biofuels -- 1.5.2 Bio-Based Chemicals -- 1.5.3 Hybrid Chemical and Biological Conversion Processes -- 1.5.4 Biorefinery Feedstock Economics -- 1.6 Conclusions and Future Prospects -- References -- 2: The Outlook of Sugar and Starch Crops in Biorefinery -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Sugar Crops -- 2.2.1 Sugarcane -- 2.2.2 Sugar Beet -- 2.2.3 Sweet Sorghum -- 2.3 Starch Crops -- 2.3.1 Corn -- 2.3.2 Potato -- 2.3.3 Wheat -- 2.3.4 Cassava -- 2.3.5 Rice -- 2.4 Uses of Sugar and Starch Crops in Biorefinery -- 2.4.1 Use of Sugar Crops in Biorefinery -- 2.4.2 Use of Starch Crops in Biorefinery -- 2.5 Conclusion -- References -- 3: Novel and Traditional Oil Crops and Their Biorefinery Potential -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Oil Crop Breeding and Its Bioprocessing Potential -- 3.3 Novel Oil Crops -- 3.3.1 Jatropha -- 3.3.2 Pongamia -- 3.3.3 Lesquerella and Cuphea -- 3.3.4 Camelina and Crambe -- 3.3.5 Other New Oil Crops -- 3.4 Traditional Oil Crops -- 3.4.1 Soybean -- 3.4.2 Oilseed Rape -- 3.4.3 Sunflower -- 3.4.4 Linseed (Flax) -- 3.4.5 Cottonseed -- 3.4.6 Castor Bean -- 3.4.7 Oil Palm -- 3.5 Perspectives for Nonfood Oil Crop Production -- References
4: Energy Crops -- 4.1 What Are Dedicated Energy Crops? -- 4.1.1 Toward Second-Generation Biofuels -- 4.2 Annual Crops -- 4.2.1 Maize (Zea mays) -- 4.2.2 Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) -- 4.2.3 Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) -- 4.2.4 Hemp (Cannabis sativa) -- 4.3 Perennial Herbaceous Crops -- 4.3.1 Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) -- 4.3.2 Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) -- 4.3.3 Miscanthus (Miscanthus spp.) -- 4.4 Short Rotation Woody Crops -- 4.4.1 Poplar (Populus spp.) and Willow (Salix spp.) -- 4.5 Why Grow Energy Crops? -- 4.6 Barriers to Energy Crops -- 4.7 Conclusions -- References -- 5: Microalgae as Feedstock for Biofuels and Biochemicals -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 The Importance of Microalgae as Feedstock for Biofuels and Biochemicals -- 5.2.1 Biochemical Components and Nutrients in Microalgae -- 5.2.2 Advantages of Microalgae for Industrial Purpose -- 5.3 New Techniques for Screening and Selecting Microalgae -- 5.3.1 High-Throughput Screening (HTS) by Fluorescent Techniques -- 5.3.2 High-Throughput Sorting (HTS) by Flow Cytometry -- 5.3.3 Rapid Evaluation Techniques for Lipid -- 5.4 Production of Microalgal Biomass in Industry -- 5.4.1 Mass Cultivation Outdoors and the Challenge -- 5.4.2 Heterotrophic and Mixotrophic Cultures -- 5.5 Bioprocessing of Microalgae as Feedstock for Biofuel Production -- 5.5.1 Biodiesel Production by Immobilized Lipase -- 5.5.2 Bioethanol Production by Anaerobic Fermentation -- 5.5.3 Biomethane and Biohydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation -- 5.6 Conclusion and Future Prospects -- References -- 6: Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 Structure and Composition of Lignocellulosic Biomass -- 6.2.1 Cellulose -- 6.2.2 Hemicellulose -- 6.2.3 Lignin -- 6.2.4 Extractives -- 6.3 Challenges in Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass -- 6.3.1 Chemical Barriers -- 6.3.2 Physical Barriers
6.4 Pretreatment Technologies -- 6.4.1 Alkali (Sodium Hydroxide, Ammonia, and Lime) -- 6.4.2 Autohydrolysis (Hot-Water and Steam Explosion) -- 6.4.3 Acid -- 6.4.4 Other Pretreatments -- 6.4.5 Severity Factor -- 6.5 Pretreatment Strategies in Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass into Fuels and Chemicals -- 6.6 Pretreatment or Fractionation: A Role of Pretreatment in the Biorefinery Concept -- 6.7 Integration of Pretreatment into the Biomass Conversion Process -- Acknowledgments -- References -- 7: Amylases: Characteristics, Sources, Production, and Applications -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Starch (The Amylases Substrate) -- 7.3 Amylases in Nature -- 7.4 Types of Amylases -- 7.4.1 α-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1 -- CAS# 9000-90-2) -- 7.4.2 β-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.2 -- CAS# 9000-91-3) -- 7.4.3 Glucoamylase or γ-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.3 -- CAS# 9032-08-0) -- 7.4.4 Pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41 -- CAS# 9075-68-7) -- 7.5 Amylase Mode of Action -- 7.6 Amylase Family Classification -- 7.7 Amylase Structure -- 7.7.1 Starch-Binding Domains (SBDs) -- 7.8 Industrial Production -- 7.8.1 α-Amylase -- 7.8.2 β-Amylase -- 7.8.3 Glucoamylase -- 7.8.4 Amylases Production from Starchy and Nonstarch Feedstocks -- 7.9 Amylase Stability -- 7.9.1 Production by Extremophilic Microorganisms -- 7.9.2 Production by Recombinant Microorganisms -- 7.9.3 Protein Engineering and Amino Acids Mutagenesis -- 7.9.4 Chemical Stabilization Method -- 7.9.5 Metal Ions Stabilization Method -- 7.9.6 Immobilization Method -- 7.10 Industrial Applications -- 7.11 Future Trends -- References -- 8: Cellulases: Characteristics, Sources, Production, and Applications -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Cellulases and Their Roles in Cellulose Hydrolysis -- 8.2.1 Cellulase Enzyme Systems for Cellulose Hydrolysis -- 8.2.2 Sequence Families of Cellulases and Their Three-Dimensional Structures
8.2.3 Catalytic Mechanisms of Cellulases -- 8.2.4 Endoglucanase -- 8.2.5 Exoglucanase -- 8.2.6 β-Glucosidase -- 8.2.7 Substrate, Synergy, and Model -- 8.2.8 Cellulase Activity Assays -- 8.3 Cellulase Improvement Efforts -- 8.3.1 Directed Evolution -- 8.3.2 Rational Design -- 8.3.3 Designer Cellulosome -- 8.4 The Applications and Productions of Cellulase -- 8.4.1 Industrial Applications of Cellulases -- 8.4.2 Cellulase Production -- 8.5 Consolidated Bioprocessing -- 8.6 Perspectives -- References -- 9: Xylanases: Characteristics, Sources, Production, and Applications -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Biochemical Characteristics of Xylanases -- 9.2.1 Chemical Structure of Xylan -- 9.2.2 Source of Xylanolytic Enzymes -- 9.2.3 Catalytic Mechanisms -- 9.2.4 Crystal Structure of Xylanases -- 9.2.5 Catalytic Properties -- 9.2.6 Xylanase Inhibitors -- 9.3 Xylanase Production -- 9.3.1 Selection of a Native Hyperproducer and Conventional Medium Optimization -- 9.3.2 Mode of Fermentation -- 9.3.3 Induction by the Carbon Source -- 9.3.4 Application of Statistical Methods -- 9.3.5 Cloning Using Suitable Hosts -- 9.4 Application of Xylanases -- 9.4.1 Bioethanol Production -- 9.4.2 Cereal-Based Applications -- 9.4.3 Production of Xylo-Oligosaccharides -- 9.4.4 Xylanases in Pulp and Paper Biotechnology -- 9.4.5 Textiles -- 9.4.6 Retting of Flax -- References -- 10: Lignin-Degrading Enzymes: An Overview -- 10.1 Introduction: Lignin as Renewable Resource -- 10.2 The Lignin Degraders -- 10.3 Ligninolytic Peroxidases -- 10.3.1 Peroxidase Catalytic Cycles and Substrates -- 10.3.2 Diversity of Ligninolytic Peroxidases -- 10.3.3 Gene Regulation -- 10.3.4 Structural Features -- 10.3.5 Oxidation Site for Aromatic Substrates -- 10.3.6 Manganese Oxidation Site -- 10.3.7 Multiple Oxidation Sites in Versatile Peroxidase -- 10.4 Laccase: The Blue Enzyme
10.4.1 Catalytic Cycle and Substrates -- 10.4.2 Source -- 10.4.3 Biochemical and Structural Features -- 10.4.4 Redox Mediators -- 10.5 Lignin-Degrading Auxiliary Enzymes -- 10.5.1 Glyoxal Oxidase -- 10.5.2 Aryl Alcohol Oxidase -- 10.5.3 Pyranose 2-Oxidase -- 10.5.4 Cellobiose Dehydrogenase -- 10.6 Production of Lignin-Modifying Enzymes -- 10.6.1 Different Fermentation Modes -- 10.6.2 Production by Immobilized Fungi -- 10.6.3 Solid-State Fermentation -- 10.6.4 Production in Recombinant Systems -- 10.7 Applications of Lignin-Modifying Enzymes -- 10.7.1 Potential and Limitations -- 10.7.2 Environmental Remediation -- 10.7.3 Textile Industry -- 10.7.4 Biopulping and Lignin Modification -- 10.7.5 Food Industry -- 10.7.6 Biosensors -- 10.7.7 Synthetic Chemistry -- 10.7.8 Cosmetics -- 10.8 Ligninolytic Enzymes: Implications for Lignin Degradation and Future Lignocellulose Biorefineries -- Acknowledgments -- References -- 11: Advances in Lignocellulosic Bioethanol -- 11.1 Introduction -- 11.2 Bioethanol versus Environment: Controversies -- 11.3 Lignocellulosic Biomass: The Ubiquitous Raw Material -- 11.4 Pretreatment: Preparation of Biomass for Enzymatic Hydrolysis -- 11.5 Enzymatic Hydrolysis -- 11.6 Biotechnological Approaches in Lignocellulosic Bioconversion -- 11.6.1 The SSF Concept -- 11.6.2 Simultaneous Saccharification and Cofermentation -- 11.6.3 Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP) -- 11.7 Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- 12: Biodiesel Properties and Alternative Feedstocks -- 12.1 Introduction -- 12.2 Biodiesel Standards -- 12.3 Catalysts -- 12.4 Preparation of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters -- 12.5 Preparation of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters -- 12.6 Influence of Free Fatty Acids on Biodiesel Production -- 12.7 Alternative Production Methods -- 12.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Biodiesel
12.9 Typical Fatty Acids Found in Most Vegetable Oil Feedstocks
Sets the stage for large-scale production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals In response to diminishing supplies as well as the environmental hazards posed by fossil fuels and petrochemicals, interest and demand for green, sustainable biofuels and bio-based chemicals are soaring. Biomass may be the solution. It is an abundant carbon-neutral renewable feedstock that can be used for the production of fuels and chemicals. Currently, biorefineries use corn, soybeans, and sugarcane for bioethanol and biodiesel production; however, there are many challenges facing biorefineries, preventing biomass from reaching its full potential. This book provides a comprehensive review of bioprocessing technologies that use lignocellulosic biomass for the production of biofuels, biochemicals, and biopolymers. It begins with an overview of integrated biorefineries. Next, it covers: Biomass feedstocks, including sugar, starch, oil, and energy crops as well as microalgae Pretreatment technologies for lignocellulosic biomass Hydrolytic enzymes used in biorefineries for the hydrolysis of starch and lignocelluloses Bioconversion technologies for current and future biofuels such as ethanol, biodiesel, butanol, hydrogen, and biogas Specialty chemicals, building block chemicals, and biopolymers produced via fermentation Phytochemicals and functional food ingredients extracted from plant materials All the chapters have been written and edited by leading experts in bioprocessing and biorefining technologies. Contributions are based on a thorough review of the literature as well as the authors' firsthand experience developing and working with bioprocessing technologies. By setting forth the current state of the technology and pointing to promising new directions in research, Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers
will enable readers to move towards large-scale, sustainable, and economical production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Yang, Shang-Tian Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers : In Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers Somerset : American Institute of Chemical Engineers,c2013 9780470541951
Subject Biochemical engineering
Electronic books
Alt Author El-Ensashy, Hesham
Thongchul, Nuttha
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