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Author Zhao, Lian Fu
Title Alkaline noodles from hard winter wheats with varying protein and amylose contents and spaghetti from durum wheat with various protein ingredients
book jacket
Descript 217 p
Note Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 64-12, Section: B, page: 5860
Major Professor: Paul A. Seib
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Kansas State University, 2003
The effects of wheat protein and starch on white-salt noodle processing and eating characteristics have been studied, but less is known about yellow-alkaline noodles. Twenty-four bread wheats with varying protein, hot-water swelling power (SP95), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were milled into straight-grade and short-patent flours. Protein, SP95, and PPO activity in the 48 flours were 8.2--12.9%, 16.2--24.1 g/g, and 80--157 DeltaA495/mg protein/min, respectively. Lightness of raw noodles declined with increasing protein and PPO levels, but yellowness decreased and then increased. Tensile force to break the cooked noodles was positively correlated with SP95 and protein. Compression (50%) force of noodles made from flour with high SP95 ∼21 g/g, averaged ∼20% below those made from low SP95 ∼17 g/g flour. Compression force was measured with a probe (4 x 50 mm) on a single noodle strand that was positioned coaxially lengthwise by a newly designed holder. The results imply that alkaline noodles made from a single-null partial-waxy wheat with medium SP95 ∼19.9 g/g will have a tender bite and a cohesive texture compared to those from a low SP95 wheat having a hard bite and fracturable texture. Alkaline noodles from a double-null partial-waxy wheat with high SP95 also will have too soft a bite, unless flour protein is above ∼12.5%. Hard-white, dual-purpose wheat should have a low level of PPO and a low- to medium-SP 95, depending on the preferred noodle-eating texture. Such wheats with medium protein levels (11--12%) are well suited for use in alkaline noodles because of improved color and surface smoothness, whereas the same wheats with high protein are well suited for bread. Wheats with medium SP95 also reduce cooking loss and increase cooked yield. Six proteins were added to semolina (12.7% protein, 14% mb) at 1.0 and 2.0% levels to strengthen cooked spaghetti. They were egg white, vital gluten, gliadin, purified gluten, water-soluble gluten, and wheat protein isolate (FP6). Water was added in two stages with mixing to protein/semolina blends to avoid oversized clumps of dough. All dry spaghetti had uniform symmetry and appeared translucent with a yellow color. FP6 at 1.0% level increased the compression force of freshly cooked spaghetti by ∼50% and also decreased surface stickiness compared to the blank and the others. Similar results were observed for microwave-reheated spaghetti previously refrigerated 24--72 h
School code: 0100
Host Item Dissertation Abstracts International 64-12B
Subject Agriculture, Food Science and Technology
Alt Author Kansas State University
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