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Author Samaras, Thomas T
Title Human Body Size : Scaling, Physiology, Aging, and Ecology
Imprint New York : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2006
©2007
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (393 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
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Note Intro -- HUMAN BODY SIZE AND THE LAWS OF SCALING PHYSIOLOGICAL, PERFORMANCE, GROWTH, LONGEVITY AND ECOLOGICAL RAMIFICATIONS -- DEDICATION -- CONTENTS -- FOREWORD -- REFERENCES CITED -- Chapter 1. WHY THE STUDY OF HUMAN SIZE IS IMPORTANT -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- HOW INCREASING HEIGHT AND WEIGHT IMPACT OUR WORLD -- MAGNITUDE OF IMPACT OF INCREASING HEIGHT AND WEIGHT ON THE WORLD -- CAUSES FOR INCREASED HEIGHT AND WEIGHT -- CURRENT IMPORTANCE OF HEIGHT AND ITS HISTORICAL TREND -- BIRTHWEIGHT AND BIRTH LENGTH ARE STRONGLY RELATED TO ADULT HEIGHT AND WEIGHT -- GROWTH RESTRICTION AND CATCH-UP GROWTH -- HEIGHT BIAS, GENETIC ENGINEERING AND FUTURE HUMAN SIZE -- INTERACTION OF NUTRITION, BODY SIZE, OBESITY AND HEALTH -- BODY SIZE AND LONGEVITY -- DEFINING THE OPTIMUM MIX OF BODY SIZE AND HUMAN FULFILLMENT -- SCALING IS A CRITICAL CONCEPT IN UNDERSTANDING PHYSICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SMALLER AND BIGGER PEOPLE -- SYMBOLS, ACRONYMS, AND ABBREVIATIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 2. HUMAN SCALING AND THE BODY MASS INDEX -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- BIOLOGICAL SCALING AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN ANTHROPOMETRY -- BODY MASS INDEX IS A MEASURE OF RELATIVE WEIGHT FOR HEIGHT -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 3. ADVANTAGES OF TALLER HUMAN HEIGHT -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- TALLER PEOPLE HAVE GREATER ABSOLUTE STRENGTH -- TALLER PEOPLE HAVE GREATER WORK CAPACITY -- TALLER PEOPLE CAN GENERATE GREATER EXTERNAL POWER OUTPUT (WORK PER UNIT TIME) -- TALLER PEOPLE HAVE LONGER REACH -- TALLER PEOPLE HAVE GREATER VISIBILITY -- TALLER PEOPLE ARE FASTER SPRINTERS AND MEDIUM DISTANCE RUNNERS -- TALLER PEOPLE ARE FASTER SWIMMERS -- TALLER PEOPLE ARE BETTER JUMPERS -- IT'S EASIER FOR TALLER PEOPLE TO KEEP WARM IN COLD WEATHER -- TALLER PEOPLE HAVE LOWER RESTING METABOLIC RATES -- TALLER PEOPLE HAVE LOWER HEART RATES
TALLER PEOPLE MAKE MORE EFFICIENT USE OF ENERGY INTAKE -- TALLER PEOPLE ARE LESS LIKELY TO BECOME DEHYDRATED -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 4. ADVANTAGES OF SHORTER HUMAN HEIGHT -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE FASTER REACTION TIMES -- SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE GREATER STRENGTH TO WEIGHT RATIOS -- SHORTER PEOPLE CAN ACCELERATE THEIR BODY LIMBS AT A FASTER RATE -- SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE GREATER ENDURANCE -- SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE RELATIVELY HIGHER POWER OUTPUT FOR THEIR WEIGHT -- SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE FASTER ROTATIONAL CAPABILITY -- SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE GREATER AGILITY -- SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE A LOWER CENTER OF GRAVITY AND GREATER STABILITY -- SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE CERTAIN ADVANTAGES IN FIGHTING AND WARFARE -- SMALLER PEOPLE HAVE REDUCED RISK OF INJURY DURING FALLS AND DEATH FROM MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS -- SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE LOWER RISK OF HIP FRACTURES -- SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE REDUCED BACK PROBLEMS -- SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE LOWER RISK OF HEAT EXHAUSTION OR HEAT STROKE -- SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE LOWER RISK OF VARICOSE VEINS -- THE LAWS OF PHYSICS ARE VALID BUT OTHER FACTORS ALSO AFFECT ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE -- SUBSEQUENT CHAPTERS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 5. BODY HEIGHT AND ITS RELATION TO CHRONIC DISEASE AND LONGEVITY -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- HUMAN HEIGHT AND CANCER MORTALITY -- Neutral and Contradictory Cancer Studies -- Protective Recommendations for Tall People -- STUDIES SHOWING TALLER PEOPLE HAVE LOWER ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY -- Potential Flaws in Studies Showing Taller People Have Lower All-cause Mortality -- STUDIES THAT FOUND SHORTER HEIGHT IS RELATED TO LOWER ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY -- Possible Flaws in Studies Showing Shorter People Have Lower Mortality -- MAKING SENSE OF ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY FINDINGS -- STUDIES SHOWING TALLER PEOPLE HAVE LOWER CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) -- Whitehall Study
Height and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) in the Framingham Offspring Study -- Height and Stroke in Korea -- Height and CVD Based on Geography in Great Britain -- Height and Risk of CVD Mortality in Scotland -- Height and CHD in Scotland -- Height and CHD in Finland -- Height and Stroke in England, Wales and Scotland -- Potential Flaws in Studies Showing Taller People Have Lower CVD -- Paradoxes for Studies Finding Taller People Have Less CVD -- POPULATION STUDIES SHOWING SHORTER PEOPLE HAVE LOWER CVD INCIDENCE/MORTALITY -- Shorter People Have Lower Atrial Fibrillation Risk -- Shorter Ethnic Groups in Western Europe Have Lower CHD -- Shorter California Ethnic Groups Have Lower CVD Mortality -- Shorter Cretans Had Lowest CHD in Europe but Contemporary Taller Children Have Increased CVD Risk Factors -- South Koreans have Seen a Large Increase in CVD over Last 50 Years -- The French in Toulouse Have Much Lower CVD Compared to Taller Belfast Irish -- Shorter Females and Lower CVD Mortality -- Italian Immigrants to US were Free of CHD -- Short People in Kitava Free of Ischaemic Heart Disease and Stroke -- Shorter Height and CVD Mortality in Sweden -- Shorter Chinese Have Lower CVD -- Shorter Vietnamese Have Virtually no CVD Risk Factors Compared to Taller Japanese and Fijians -- Shorter Cretans and Lower CVD -- Shorter Okinawans Have Lower CVD than Taller Mainland Japanese -- Summary of Additional CVD and Shorter Height Findings -- Possible Flaws in Studies Showing Shorter People Have Lower CVD -- Making Sense of CVD Mortality Findings -- NEUTRAL STUDIES ON HEIGHT VS CVD AND ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY -- DIABETES AND ITS RELATION TO HEIGHT -- HOW HEIGHT RELATES TO LIFE EXPECTANCY, LONGEVITY AND SURVIVAL TO OLD AGE -- Life Expectancy and Increased Height -- Longevity and Height -- Greater Female Life Expectancy and Height -- Twin Longevity and Smaller Size
Centenarian Height and Longevity -- Potential Confounders for Longevity Studies -- ANIMAL LONGEVITY AND BODY SIZE -- BIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS THAT MAY EXPLAIN THE RELATION BETWEEN GREATER HEIGHT AND LONGEVITY -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 6. BMI AND WEIGHT: THEIR RELATION TO DIABETES, CVD, CANCER AND ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- INCREASING BMI PROMOTES DIABETES -- INCREASING BMI PROMOTES CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE -- A HIGHER BMI PROMOTES CVD -- INCREASING BMI PROMOTES CANCER -- INCREASING BMI AND ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY -- ACTUAL/ABSOLUTE WEIGHT AND MORTALITY -- PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS NEGATIVELY RELATED TO INCREASED BMI AND WEIGHT -- ROLE OF DIET IN REDUCING WEIGHT, BMI AND CHRONIC DISEASES -- IMPORTANCE OF REDUCED CALORIES AND WEIGHT -- BIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS RELATED TO BODY SIZE AND LONGEVITY -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 7. THE OBESITY EPIDEMIC, BIRTHWEIGHT, RAPID GROWTH AND SUPERIOR NUTRITION -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- Increasing Obesity in the Developing World -- The Obesity Epidemic in the Developed World -- SMALL INCREASES IN ENERGY INTAKE ADD UP TO OVERWEIGHT OR OBESITY -- THE RELATION OF BIRTHWEIGHT AND GROWTH RATE TO ADULT BMI AND CHRONIC DISEASE -- BIRTHWEIGHT AND TYPE 1 DIABETES -- FACTORS DETERMINING BIRTHWEIGHT -- SMALL BIRTH SIZE AND ITS RELATION TO INFANT MORTALITY AND ADULT BLOOD PRESSURE LEVELS -- OTHER FINDINGS -- THE ROLES OF MATERNAL BMI, WEIGHT AND HEIGHT ON INFANT MORTALITY AND PREGNANCY OUTCOMES -- Risk of Preterm Birth -- Risk of Low BW -- Risk of Small for Gestational Age -- Rantakallio's Conclusions -- NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF PROMOTING HIGHER BIRTHWEIGHT AND MACROSOMIA -- MATERNAL BODY WEIGHT DURING THE PRECONCEPTION AND PREGNANCY PERIODS AND OFFSPRING OBESITY AND FUTURE CHD -- MALNUTRITION DURING THE GESTATIONAL PERIOD -- CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND ADULT HEALTH RISKS
AGE AT ADIPOSITY REBOUND PREDICTS FUTURE BMI -- EARLY PUBERTY HAS DISADVANTAGES -- DANGERS OF PROMOTING RAPID GROWTH IN HEIGHT AND WEIGHT -- PROTEIN INTAKE AND OBESITY, MORBIDITY AND LONGEVITY -- BIOLOGICAL RISKS RELATED TO RAPID GROWTH AND INCREASED BODY SIZE -- IMPORTANCE OF GOOD NUTRITION BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER CHILDBIRTH -- Breastfeeding of Infants -- Fats -- Animal Protein -- Salt and Health -- Recommended Diets -- The Asian Diet -- Nutritional Overview -- CONCLUSION -- ANIMAL STUDIES DEALING WITH CHRONIC DISEASE AND LONGEVITY -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- Chapter 8. LONG-LIVED MUTANT, GENE KNOCKOUT AND TRANSGENIC MICE -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- AMONG NORMAL MICE, SMALLER INDIVIDUALS LIVE LONGER -- EXCESSIVE GROWTH HORMONE SECRETION PRODUCES SHORT-LIVED GIANT MICE -- DIETARY MANIPULATIONS THAT REDUCE BODY SIZE AND INCREASE LIFESPAN -- SEARCH FOR MECHANISMS LINKING REDUCED SOMATOTROPIC SIGNALING WITH EXTENDED LONGEVITY -- Impact of Reduced Somatotropic Signaling on Aging and Cancer -- Hypothyroidism and Delayed Aging -- Reduced Insulin Levels and Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity as Likely Causes of Delayed Aging in Dwarf Mice -- Stress Resistance -- Delayed Reproductive Development and Reduced Fecundity -- Other Potential Mechanisms of Increased Longevity in Dwarf Mice -- WHAT CAN WE CONCLUDE FROM THE STUDIES OF LONGEVITY IN DIMINUTIVE MUTANT MICE? -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- Untitled -- Chapter 9. THE EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF BODY SIZE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ALLOMETRY AND SURVIVORSHIP -- ABSTRACT -- KEY DIMENSIONS OF LIFE HISTORY EVOLUTION: ALLOCATION AND RISK -- THE PRINCIPLE OF ALLOCATION -- THE ADAPTIVE SUITE -- OVERVIEW OF ALLOMETRY -- FITNESS AND LONGEVITY -- MORTALITY AND BODY SIZE -- EIGHT LEGS VERSUS TWO -- EVOLUTION, SIZE AND ALLOMETRY (BALANCED MORTALITY AND THE ORTHOGENIC RATCHET) -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES
Chapter 10. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH ON GIANT TRANSGENIC MICE WITH EMPHASIS ON THE BRAIN AND AGING
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Samaras, Thomas T. Human Body Size : Scaling, Physiology, Aging, and Ecology New York : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated,c2006 9781600214080
Subject Body size.;Human ecology.;Human evolution
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