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Author Sazonov, Edward
Title Wearable Sensors : Fundamentals, Implementation and Applications
Imprint San Diego : Elsevier Science & Technology, 2014
©2015
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (649 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Front Cover -- Wearable Sensors -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- Introduction -- 1.1 Wearables: Fundamentals, Advancements, and a Roadmap for the Future -- 1 World of Wearables (WOW) -- 1.1 The Role of Wearables -- 1.2 Data-Information-Knowledge-Value Paradigm -- 1.2.1 The Emerging Concept of Big Data -- 1.2.2 Medical Loss Ratio and Wearables -- 1.3 The Ecosystem Enabling Digital Life -- 1.3.1 Smart Mobile Communication Devices -- 1.3.2 Social Media Tools -- 2 Attributes of Wearables -- 2.1 Taxonomy for Wearables -- 2.2 Advancements in Wearables -- 2.2.1 The Wearable Motherboard - a User-Centric Approach to the Design of Wearables -- 2.2.2 Research in Flexible Electronics -- 2.2.3 The Latest Trends in Commercial Wearables -- 3 Textiles and Clothing: The Meta-Wearable -- 3.1 Attributes of the Textile Meta-Wearable -- 3.2 Realization of the Meta-Wearable: The Wearable Motherboard -- 3.2.1 Wearable Motherboard Architecture -- 3.2.2 Convergence and Interactive Textiles -- 3.3 Applications of Wearables -- 4 Challenges and Opportunities -- 4.1 Technical Challenges -- 4.2 Making a Business Case -- 5 The Future of Wearables: Defining the Research Roadmap -- 5.1 Imagine the Future -- 5.2 The Research Roadmap: A Transdisciplinary Approach to Realizing the Future -- References -- 1.2 Social Aspects of Wearability and Interaction -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Social Interpretation of Aesthetics -- 2.1 Visual Processing of Aesthetics -- 2.2 Visual Expression of Individual and Group Identity -- 3 Adoption of Innovation and Aesthetic Change -- 3.1 The Fashion Cycle: Aesthetic Change in Fashion -- 3.2 Social Leadership in Fashion -- 4 On-Body Interaction: Social Acceptance of Gesture -- 4.1 Conspicuity and Social Weight -- 4.2 Impact of Body Location and Handedness -- 4.3 Impact of Cultural Norms -- 4.4 The "Vocabulary" of Gesture
4.5 Differentiating Passive and Active Gestures -- 5 Case Study: Google Glass -- 6 Conclusion -- References -- 1.3 Wearable Haptics -- 1 Introduction -- 2 The Need for Wearable Haptic Devices -- 3 Categories of Wearable Haptic and Tactile Display -- 3.1 Force Feedback Devices -- 3.2 Vibro-Tactile Feedback Devices -- 3.3 Electro-Tactile Feedback Devices -- 4 Display of Friction and Weight Illusions Based on Fingertip Manipulation -- 4.1 Creation of Haptic Sensation via Finger Pulp Manipulation -- 4.2 Deformation of the Contact Area -- 4.3 Weight and Friction Illusion Display -- 5 A Wearable Sensorimotor Enhancer -- 5.1 Improvement of Haptic Sensory Capability for Enhanced Motor Performance -- 5.2 A Wearable Sensorimotor Enhancer Based on the Stochastic Resonance Effect -- 5.2.1 Two-Point Discrimination Test -- 5.2.2 One-Point Touch Test -- 5.2.3 Active Sensory Test - Texture Discrimination -- 5.2.4 Motor Skill Test - Minimal-Force Grasping -- 6 Conclusions -- References -- 2.1 Wearable Bio and Chemical Sensors -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Chemical and Biochemical Sensors -- 1.2 Parameters of Interest -- 2 System Design -- 2.1 Sample Handling -- 2.1.1 Transport of Fluids in a Textile -- 2.1.2 Microneedle Technology -- 2.1.3 Sampling Gases -- 2.2 Types of Sensors -- 2.2.1 Wearable Colorimetric Sensing Platforms -- 2.2.2 Electrochemical -- 3 Challenges in Chemical Biochemical Sensing -- 3.1 Sensor Stability -- 3.2 Interface with the Body -- 3.3 Textile Integration -- 3.4 Power Requirements -- 4 Application Areas -- 4.1 Personal Health -- 4.2 Sports Performance -- 4.3 Safety and Security -- 5 Conclusions -- References -- 2.2 Wearable Inertial Sensors and Their Applications -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Wearable Inertial Sensors -- 2.1 Principles of Inertial Sensors -- 2.2 Accelerometers -- 2.3 Gyroscopic Sensors -- 2.4 Magnetic Sensors -- 2.4.1 The Hall Effect
2.4.2 Magnetoimpedance Sensors -- 2.4.3 Magnetoresistance Sensors -- 2.4.4 Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors -- 3 Obtained Parameters from Inertia Sensors -- 3.1 Mathematical Analyses -- 3.2 Comparison between Rehabilitation Score and Acceleration -- 4 Applications for Wearable Motion Sensors -- 4.1 Fall Risk Assessment with Rehabilitation Battery -- 4.2 Fall Detection -- 4.3 Quantitative Evaluation of Hemiplegic Patients -- 4.4 Clinical Assessment for Parkinson's Disease -- 4.5 Energy Expenditure -- 5 Practical Considerations for Wearable Inertial Sensor Applications in Clinical Practice and Future Research Directions -- References -- 2.3 Application of Optical Heart Rate Monitoring -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Photoplethysmography Basics -- 2.1 History -- 2.2 Measurement Principles -- 2.3 Measurement Sites -- 2.4 Factors Affecting the Quality of Signal -- 2.5 Motion Artifact Minimization and Removal -- 2.5.1 Tissue Modifications Due to Movements -- 2.5.2 Relative Motion of the Sensor-Skin Interface -- 2.5.3 Changes in the Pressure between the Optical Probe and the Skin -- 2.6 Optomechanical Design -- 2.7 Dedicated Signal Processing -- 3 Applications -- 3.1 Sport and Fitness -- 3.2 Daily Life -- 3.3 HRV Applications -- 4 Conclusion and Outlook -- Nomenclature -- References -- 2.4 Measurement of Energy Expenditure by Body-worn Heat-flow Sensors -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Energy Expenditure Background -- 3 Examples of Body-Worn Devices -- 3.1 Motion-Based Estimation of Energy Expenditure -- 3.2 Indirect Calorimeters -- 3.2.1 Cosmed K4b2 -- 3.2.2 MicroLife Bodygem -- 3.3 Direct Calorimeters -- 3.3.1 Historical Water-Cooled Suits -- 3.3.2 Historical Heat-Flow Gauges -- 3.4 Body Media -- 3.5 MetaLogics Personal Calorie Monitor -- 4 Design considerations -- 5 Performance -- 6 Validations -- 6.1 Comparison to Metabolic Cart -- 6.2 Comparison to Room Calorimeter
7 Conclusion -- Glossary -- References -- 3.1 Knitted Electronic Textiles -- 1 From Fibers to Textile Sensors -- 2 The Interlaced Network -- 3 Textile Sensors for Physiological State Monitoring -- 4 Biomechanical Sensing -- 5 Non-Invasive Sweat Monitoring by Textile Sensors -- 6 Smart Fabrics and Interactive Textile Platforms for Remote Monitoring -- 7 System for Remote Rehabilitation -- 8 Systems for Emotional State Assessment -- 9 Conclusions -- Glossary -- References -- 3.2 Woven Electronic Textiles -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Textiles -- 2.1 Yarn -- 2.2 Textile Weaves -- 2.3 Looms -- 3 Applications -- 3.1 Touchpad -- 3.2 Textile Switch -- 3.3 Textile Electrodes -- 3.4 RFID Textiles -- 4 Summary -- Glossary -- References -- 3.3 Flexible Electronics from Foils to Textiles: Materials, Devices, and Assembly -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Thin-Film Transistors: Materials and Technologies -- 3 Review of Semiconductors Employed in Flexible Electronics -- 4 Thin-Film Transistors Based on a-IGZO -- 4.1 Thin-Film Transistor Fabrication and Characterization -- 4.2 Influence of Mechanical Strain -- 4.3 Analog and Digital Circuits Based on a-IGZO -- 4.3.1 Digital Circuits -- 4.3.2 Analog Circuits -- 5 Further Improvements and Limitations -- 5.1 Thin-Film Transistors by Self-Aligned Lithography -- 5.2 Flexible Double-Gate TFTs -- 5.3 Flexible a-IGZO TFTs with Vertical Channel -- 6 Plastic Electronics for Smart Textiles -- 6.1 Textile E-nose -- 6.2 Textile Integrated Near-Infrared Spectroscopy System -- 7 Outlook and Conclusions -- References -- 4.1 Energy Harvesting at the Human Body -- 1 Introduction to Energy Harvesting Systems -- 2 Energy Harvesting from Temperature Gradient at the Human Body -- 2.1 Thermoelectric Generators -- 2.2 DC-DC Converter Topologies -- 2.3 DC-DC Converter Design for Ultra-low Input Voltages
2.3.1 Maximum Power Point Tracking for Impedance Matching -- 3 Energy Harvesting from Foot Motion -- 3.1 Physical Principles -- 3.2 AC-DC Converters -- 4 Wireless Energy Transmission -- 4.1 Inductive Wireless Energy Transfer in the Near Field -- 4.2 Capacitive Wireless Energy Transfer in the Near Field -- 4.3 Electromagnetic Wireless Energy Transmission in the Far Field -- 4.4 RFID Technology as an Example Application -- 4.5 Wireless Power Transmission Regulations -- 4.6 Influence of the Body on the Wireless System -- 5 Energy Harvesting from Light -- 5.1 Physical Principles -- 5.2 DC-DC Converter -- 6 Energy and Power Consumption Issues -- 7 Conclusions and Future Considerations -- References -- S.1 Energy Harvesting from Temperature Gradient at the Human Body: DC-DC Converter Design for Ultra-low Input Voltages -- S.1.1 Bipolar DC-DC Converter Design -- S.1.2 ASIC Design and Demonstrator -- S.1.3 Maximum-Power Point Tracking for Impedance Matching -- S.2 Energy harvesting from Foot Motion: AC-DC Converter -- S.2.1 AC-DC Linear Rectifiers -- S.2.2 AC-DC Nonlinear Rectifiers -- S.3 Energy harvesting from Light: MPPT Algorithms -- References for the Supplemental Material -- 4.2 Introduction to RF Energy Harvesting -- 1 RF Energy Harvesting Fundamentals and Practical Limitations -- 1.1 Wave Propagation, Antenna Effective Area, and Available Power -- 1.2 Antenna-Rectifier Interface Voltage -- 1.3 Practical Limitations -- 2 Impedance Mismatch, Losses, and Efficiency -- 2.1 Available Components and Technology -- 2.2 Regulations and Maximum Achievable Distance -- 3 Distribution of Harvested Power in a Realistic Environment -- 3.1 Ambient RF Power -- 4 Charge Pump Rectifier Topologies -- 5 Effect of Load and Source Variations -- 5.1 Optimum Power Transfer Techniques -- 6 Antenna-Rectifier Co-Design -- 6.1 Measurements and Verification -- 7 Conclusion
Acknowledgement
Written by industry experts, this book aims to provide you with an understanding of how to design and work with wearable sensors. Together these insights provide the first single source of information on wearable sensors that would be a valuable addition to the library of any engineer interested in this field. Wearable Sensors covers a wide variety of topics associated with the development and application of various wearable sensors. It also provides an overview and coherent summary of many aspects of current wearable sensor technology. Both industry professionals and academic researchers will benefit from this comprehensive reference which contains the most up-to-date information on the advancement of lightweight hardware, energy harvesting, signal processing, and wireless communications and networks. Practical problems with smart fabrics, biomonitoring and health informatics are all addressed, plus end user centric design, ethical and safety issues. Provides the first comprehensive resource of all currently used wearable devices in an accessible and structured manner. Helps engineers manufacture wearable devices with information on current technologies, with a focus on end user needs and recycling requirements. Combines the expertise of professionals and academics in one practical and applied source
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Sazonov, Edward Wearable Sensors : Fundamentals, Implementation and Applications San Diego : Elsevier Science & Technology,c2014 9780124186620
Subject Computer engineering -- Congresses.;Human-computer interaction
Electronic books
Alt Author Neuman, Michael R
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