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Author Imperatives, Committee on Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural
Title Managing Global Genetic Resources : Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies
Imprint Washington, D.C. : National Academies Press, 1993
©1993
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (475 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES -- Copyright -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Contents -- Executive Summary -- AN AGRICULTURAL ENDOWMENT -- THE NEED FOR GENETIC RESOURCES -- ACCESSING GENETIC RESOURCES -- The Role of Science and Technology -- In Situ or Ex Situ Conservation? -- Managing the Numbers -- Describing Collections -- Regeneration: Essential but Overlooked -- The Role of Biotechnology -- Exchange and Ownership -- Quarantine -- Ownership -- BUILDING COOPERATION -- National Programs -- International Cooperation -- LOOKING TO THE FUTURE: RECOMMENDATIONS -- Managing Crop Vulnerability -- Management and Use -- Technology Development and Research -- Policy and Politics -- Institutions -- Multilevel Collaborations on Genetic Conservation -- An Overview of Genetic Resources Management -- THE IMPORTANCE OF GERMPLASM -- THE ORIGINS OF CONSERVATION -- THE USEFULNESS OF GERMPLASM -- THE THREAT OF GENETIC VULNERABILITY -- EMERGENCE OF GLOBAL CONCERNS -- DISSENTING VIEWS -- THE PROBLEM OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS -- MICROORGANISM COLLECTIONS -- PART I BASIC SCIENCE ISSUES -- 1 Genetic Vulnerability and Crop Diversity -- WHAT IS GENETIC VULNERABILITY? -- Critical Factors and Assumptions -- The Role of Uniformity -- The Role of Monoculture -- The Role of Environment -- Measuring Genetic Vulnerability -- PLANT, PATHOGEN, PEST, AND ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIONSHIPS -- Evolutionary Nature of the Relationship -- Types of Relationships -- Evolution of Major Pathogens -- Minor Pathogen Enhancement -- Environmental Enhancement of Pathogen Effects -- Varieties Vulnerable in New Regions -- Varieties Vulnerable to Exotic Pathogens -- Agronomically Related Vulnerability -- Change in Vulnerability to Discounted Pests -- BREEDING STRATEGIES AND THEIR IMPACT ON GENETIC DIVERSITY -- Genetic Diversity in Primitive and Modern Varieties
Germplasm Varietal Development and Vulnerability -- Gains in Productivity -- Vulnerability and Varietal Replacement Over Time -- Alternative Strategies to Enhance Diversity and Increase Stability -- VULNERABILITY AND CROP DIVERSITY SINCE 1970 -- Dry Beans -- Wheat -- Maize -- Rice -- Minor Crops -- Genetic Vulnerability Today -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- 2 Crop Diversity: Institutional Responses -- GERMPLASM COLLECTION AND CONSERVATION WORLDWIDE -- Role of IBPGR in Catalyzing Collection and Conservation -- Germplasm Banks Worldwide -- Evaluation -- IBPGR Interactions with the IARCs -- Interactions with National Programs -- Roles of Other International Agencies -- DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL CROP BREEDING PROGRAMS -- Progress with Legumes, Root Crops, and Vegetables -- Nurseries and the Enhancement of Exotic Germplasm -- Networks and Interactions with National Programs -- Concerns -- GLOBAL IMPACT OF ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES -- Changes in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System -- Impact of Plant Varietal Protection and Patents -- Genetic Diversity and Germplasm Exchange -- International Impact -- Changing Public and Private Sector Roles -- The Decline of Public Sector Breeding Programs -- The Growth of Private Sector Breeding Programs -- Restructuring of the Seed Industry -- Balancing Public and Private Sector Roles -- International Implications -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- 3 In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources -- THE IMPORTANCE OF IN SITU CONSERVATION -- WILD SPECIES AS GENETIC RESOURCES -- Genetic Conservation Areas -- THE STATUS OF IN SITU CONSERVATION OF WILD TYPES -- Obstacles to In Situ Conservation of Wild Genetic Resources -- The Potential of Using Existing Protected Areas as Germplasm Banks -- THE STATUS OF IN SITU CONSERVATION OF DOMESTICATED TYPES -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- 4 The Science of Collecting Genetic Resources -- TYPES OF COLLECTIONS
Base Collections -- Back-Up Collections -- Active Collections -- Breeders' Collections -- SAMPLING STRATEGIES -- PARAMETERS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY -- Neutral Allele Model -- EMPIRICAL STUDIES OF GENETIC DIVERSITY: NUMBERS OF ALLELES AND ALLELIC PROFILES -- Quantitative Characters -- Qualitative or Discretely Inherited Characters -- Enzyme Variants -- FORMULATION OF SAMPLING STRATEGIES -- EMPIRICAL STUDIES OF ALLELIC DIVERSITY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY INFLUENCED GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION -- A Wild, Predominantly Self-Pollinating Species -- Isozyme Variation Within and Among Cultivated Races of Maize, An Outbreeding Species -- SAMPLE SIZES FOR EACH COLLECTION SITE -- Capturing Lower-Frequency Alleles -- Size of the Sample -- NUMBER OF SITES TO SAMPLE -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- 5 The Science of Managing Genetic Resources -- SEED REGENERATION -- Breeding Systems -- Principles Involved in Maintaining Genetic Integrity During Regeneration -- Contamination from Outcrossing -- Differential Survival -- Isolation -- Population Size in Relation to Inbreeding Depression and Drift -- Maintaining Effective Population Sizes -- The Effect of Genetic Drift and Natural Selection -- Regeneration of Predominantly Inbreeding Species -- Maintenance of Landraces or Wild Species -- CHARACTERIZATION -- EVALUATION -- Increase of Seed or Plant Parts -- Multidisciplinary Approach to Evaluation -- Planning and Implementing Evaluation Tests -- Choice of Representative Environments or Sites -- Preventing Exotic Germplasm from Becoming a Serious Pest -- Verification of Evaluation Data -- Communication Among Plant Germplasm Users -- Documentation -- MONITORING OF SEED VIABILITY AND GENETIC INTEGRITY DURING STORAGE -- REDUNDANCY AMONG COLLECTIONS -- Core Subsets of Collections -- Advantages of Core Subsets -- Disadvantages of the Core Concept -- Practical Problems with Core Subsets
RECOMMENDATIONS -- 6 Using Genetic Resources -- AN EXAMPLE OF GERMPLASM USE -- BREEDERS' PERCEPTIONS AND PRACTICES -- Monitoring Advanced Materials -- Performance Advances -- USERS' PERCEPTIONS OF THE GERMPLASM SYSTEM -- BREEDERS' PERCEPTIONS OF ACTIVE COLLECTIONS -- Passport and Descriptor Information -- Maintenance, Rejuvenation, and Sample Size -- Redundancy -- Obsolescence -- Evaluation -- MODERNIZATION OF ACTIVE COLLECTIONS -- EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES AND GERMPLASM USE -- Barley -- Maize -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- 7 Biotechnology and Germplasm Conservation -- ALTERNATIVES TO STORING SEEDS AND WHOLE ORGANISMS -- In Vitro Conservation of Plants -- In Vitro Storage -- Collecting Germplasm In Vitro -- In Vitro Exchange of Germplasm -- In Vitro Conservation of Animals -- MOLECULAR CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES -- DNA as a Genetic Resource -- DNA Sequence Data Banks -- Restriction Fragment length Polymorphisms -- Polymerase Chain Reaction -- Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers -- Other Uses for Probes -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- 8 Documentation of Genetic Resources -- INFORMATION ON GERMPLASM COLLECTIONS -- Management Information -- Descriptive Information -- Sources of Additional Information -- Information on Other Collections -- Information on Related Topics -- Standardization of Information -- COMPUTERIZATION OF GERMPLASM COLLECTION DATA -- Hardware -- Software -- Standardization of Systems -- Information Supply to Users -- CURRENT STATUS OF GENETIC RESOURCES DOCUMENTATION -- Collection Data Bases -- Central Crop Data Bases -- Other Sources of Information -- FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- 9 The Conservation of Genetic Stock Collections -- IMPORTANCE AND USE OF GENETIC STOCK COLLECTIONS -- GENETIC STOCK COLLECTIONS -- Development and Location -- Development of Genetic Stock Collections -- Maintaining Genetic Stock Collections
Components of Collections -- Single-Gene or Single-Trait Variants -- Cytogenetic Stock -- Other Genetic Stocks -- Breeding Lines Versus Genetic Stock Collections -- MAINTAINING GENETIC STOCK COLLECTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS -- Special Needs and Requirements -- EXAMPLES OF GENETIC STOCK COLLECTIONS -- The Charles M. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center -- Operations of the TGSC -- Future Operations -- Barley Genetic Stock Collections -- The Barley Genetic and Aneuploid Stock Collection -- Operations of the Barley Genetic and Aneuploid Stock Collection -- Future Operations -- TOWARD A MORE SECURE FUTURE -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- 10 The Genetic Resources of Microorganisms -- ORGANIZATION OF MICROBIAL CULTURE COLLECTIONS -- MICROBIAL RESOURCES IN CULTURE COLLECTIONS -- CONSERVING MICROBIAL DIVERSITY -- Numbers and Richness of Microbial Species -- MAINTENANCE OF GENETIC STABILITY IN CULTURE -- Traditional Preservation Methods -- Freeze-Drying and Liquid Nitrogen Preservation -- MAINTENANCE IN NATURAL HABITATS -- POTENTIAL OF MICROBES IN THE AGRICULTURAL, BIOTECHNOLOGICAL, AND INDUSTRIAL SECTORS -- Exploitation of Metabolites -- Genetic Engineering -- Application of Microorganisms in Agriculture -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- Part II POLICY ISSUES -- 11 Exchange of Genetic Resources: Quarantine -- REDUCING THE RISKS FROM PESTS AND PATHOGENS -- QUARANTINE AND GLOBAL TRANSFER OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES -- Quarantine as a Pest Control Strategy -- Quarantine and Genetic Resources -- Legal Basis of Quarantine -- Biologic Basis of Quarantine -- Geographic Basis of Quarantine -- Pests and Pathogens of Quarantine Significance -- Pathways for the Entry of Pests and Pathogens -- Pest Risk Analysis -- IMPORTATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- 12 Exchange of Genetic Resources: Proprietary Rights -- PROPRIETARY RIGHTS ON LIVING BEINGS -- Plants -- Animals -- Microbes
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Imperatives, Committee on Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Managing Global Genetic Resources : Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Washington, D.C. : National Academies Press,c1993 9780309044301
Subject Crops -- Germplasm resources -- Management.;Germplasm resources, Plant -- Management
Electronic books
Alt Author Council, National Research
Agriculture, Board on
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