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Author Thompson, J Michael T
Title Advances In Earth Science : From Earthquakes to Global Warming
Imprint Singapore : World Scientific Publishing Company, 2007
©2007
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (343 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Series Royal Society Series On Advances In Science ; v.2
Royal Society Series On Advances In Science
Note Intro -- CONTENTS -- Preface Chris Hawkesworth, FRS -- Profiles of the Editors and Authors -- Authors -- Introduction Peter Sammonds -- Environmental Change -- Dynamics of the Earth -- Applied Earth Science -- Section 1: ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE -- The Price of Climate Change David S. Reay -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The Rise and Fall of Mitigation Costs -- 3. Place Your Bets -- 4. Greenhouse Gas Budgets for Individuals -- (a) Baby (Aged 0-2) -- (b) Toddler (Aged 2-4) -- (c) Infant (Aged 4-7) -- (d) Junior (Aged 7-11) -- (e) Senior (Aged 11-18) -- (f) Student (Aged 18-21) -- (g) Young adult (Aged 21-30) -- (h) Older adult (Aged 30-45) -- (i) Pre-retirement (Aged 45-60) -- (j) Retirement (Aged 60-75+) -- (k) The final bill -- 5. Conclusion -- Appendices -- Baby (0-2 years) -- Toddler (2-4 years) -- Infant (4-7 years) -- Junior (7-11 years) -- Senior (11-18) -- Student (18-21) -- Adult (21-30) -- Older adult (30-45) -- Pre-retirement (45-60) -- Retirement (60-75) -- References -- Carbon in the Atmosphere and Terrestrial Biosphere in the Early Anthropocene Yadvinder Malhi -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The Global Carbon Cycle Today -- 2.1. The natural carbon cycle -- 2.2. The carbon disruption and the Anthropocene -- 2.3. The contemporary global carbon balance -- 3. The Causes of the Carbon Sink in the Terrestrial Biosphere -- 4. Looking for the Terrestrial Carbon Sink -- 4.1. The global atmosphere -- 4.2. Measurements of the vertical flux of CO2 above a surface -- 4.3. Biomass and soil carbon inventories -- 4.4. The overall distribution of the sink - reconciling different approaches -- 5. Implications of a Biospheric Carbon Sink for the Biosphere -- 6. Prospects for the 21st Century -- 6.1. Scenarios for the 21st century -- 6.2. The Kyoto protocol and carbon politics -- 6.3. Surprises in the biosphere -- Acknowledgements -- References
Dust in the Earth System: The Biogeochemical Linking of Land, Air, and Sea Andy Ridgwell and Karen E. Kohfeld -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Dust Deposition in the Terrestrial Realm -- 3. Dust Deposition in the Marine Realm -- 3.1. Iron limitation in the ocean -- 3.2. Iron supply to the surface ocean -- 3.3. Iron supply and the global carbon cycle -- 4. Anthropogenic Modi.cation of Dust Supply -- 5. The Demise of the Last Ice Age: A Role for Dust? -- 6. Conclusion and Perspectives -- Acknowledgements -- References -- The Late Permian Mass Extinction Event and Recovery: Biological Catastrophe in a Greenhouse World Richard J. Twitchett -- 1. Stratigraphy and Dating -- 2. The Question of Cause -- 2.1. Extraterrestrial impact? -- 2.2. Volcanically triggered global warming? -- 3. Patterns of Extinction -- 3.1. Marine extinctions -- 3.2. Terrestrial extinctions -- 4. Post-Extinction Recovery -- 4.1. Recovery of marine ecosystems -- 4.2. Recovery of terrestrial ecosystems -- 5. Conclusions -- References -- Section 2: DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH -- Space-Plasma Imaging - Past, Present and Future Cathryn N. Mitchell -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Ionospheric Imaging -- 3. Imaging Using GPS -- 4. Data Assimilation -- 5. Imaging Near-Earth Space and Other Planets -- 6. Solar-Terrestrial System Imaging and Data Assimilation -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Fault Structure, Stress, Friction and Rupture Dynamics of Earthquakes Eiichi Fukuyama -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Fault Structure -- 3. Stress Field -- 4. Constitutive Relation -- 5. Numerical Simulation -- 6. Dynamic Rupture of Earthquake -- 7. Concluding Remarks -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Some Remarks on the Time Scales of Magmatic Processes Occurring Beneath Island Arc Volcanoes Simon P. Turner -- 1. Introduction -- 2. U-Series Isotope Systematics -- 3. Subducted Components and the Time Scales of their Transfer
3.1. Transfer of the sediment component -- 3.2. Transfer of the fluid component -- 4. The Mechanisms of Fluid Addition, Partial Melting and Magma Ascent -- 4.1. Fluid addition -- 4.2. The thermal structure in the wedge -- 4.3. A dynamic melt region -- 4.4. Melt segregation and ascent rates -- 5. Magma Residence and Evolution Within the Crust -- 6. Conclusions -- References -- The Break-Up of Continents and the Generation of Ocean Basins T. A. Minshull -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Magmatism During Continental Break-Up -- 3. Deformation During Continental Break-Up -- 4. The Future -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Properties and Evolution of the Earth's Core and Geodynamo F. Nimmo and D. Alfe -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The Interior Structure of the Earth -- 2.1. Thermal structure of the Earth -- 2.2. Magnetic observations of the Earth -- 3. Core Properties -- 3.1. First principles calculations -- 3.2. Free energies -- 3.3. The melting curve of iron -- 3.4. Constraints on the composition of the Earth's core -- 4. Dynamo Models -- 5. The Evolution of the Core and Dynamo -- 5.1. Present-day heat balance -- 5.2. Thermal evolution of the Earth -- 6. Other Silicate Bodies -- 6.1. Observations and deductions -- 7. Conclusions -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Section 3: APPLIED EARTH SCIENCE -- Giant Catastrophic Landslides Christopher R. J. Kilburn -- 1. Catastrophe in the Mountains -- 2. The Threat from Sturzstroms -- 3. Characteristics of Sturzstrom Deposits -- 4. The Evolution of Sturzstroms -- 5. The Importance of Sturzstrom Volume -- 6. Resistance to Motion in Basal Granular Fluids -- 7. Quantifying Sturzstrom Runout -- 8. Minimum Volume for Sturzstroms -- 9. Implications for Sturzstrom Emplacement -- 10. Appendix -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Remote Monitoring of the Earthquake Cycle using Satellite Radar Interferometry Tim J. Wright
1. The Earthquake Cycle -- 2. Satellite Radar Interferometry -- 3. Coseismic Deformation: Images of Earthquakes -- 4. Interseismic Deformation -- 5. A Look Into the Future -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Human Influence on the Global Geochemical Cycle of Lead Dominik J. Weiss, Malin E. Kylander and Matthew K. Reuer -- 1. Getting the Lead Out: Sampling and Analysis -- 2. Lead Isotopes as Tools for Source Identi.cation -- 3. 'Natural' Lead in the Environment -- 3.1. Natural lead in the terrestrial environment -- 3.2. Natural lead in the marine environment -- 3.3. Natural changes in atmospheric deposition -- 3.4. Glacial-interglacial variations in lead concentrations and lead isotopes -- 3.5. Mineral dust .uxes and volcanogenic lead to ice cores -- 4. Anthropogenic Lead -- 4.1. Aerosol compositions -- 4.2. Lead in the marine system -- 5. Reconstructing the Anthropogenic Impact -- 5.1. Evidences from ice core records -- 5.2. Evidences from peat and sediment records -- 5.3. Evidences from marine records -- 6. Future Steps -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Natural and Artificial Platinum and Palladium Occurrences World-Wide Hazel M. Prichard -- 1. Platinum and Palladium Distribution in the Earth -- 2. Economic Pt & Pd Concentrations in Natural Deposits -- 3. Non-Economic Pt and Pd Concentrations in Natural Occurrences -- 4. Magmatic Processes that Collect Pt and Pd -- 5. Platinum-Group Minerals -- 6. Pt and Pd Mobility at the Earth's Surface -- 7. Pt and Pd in the Urban Environment -- 8. Knowledge from Natural Pt and Pd Occurrences Applied to the Man-Made Situation -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Data Assimilation and Objectively Optimised Earth Observation David J. Lary and Anuradha Koratkar -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Dynamic Data -- 3. Science Goal Monitor -- 4. Information Content and State Vector Uncertainty -- 5. Automatic Code Generation
6. Data Assimilation -- 7. Automatic Data Compression -- 8. Machine Learning -- 9. Automatic Analysis and Web Site Creation -- 9.1. A case study: Chlorine oxidation of methane in the free troposphere -- 10. Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Afterword Bill McGuire -- Index
Advances in Earth Science outlines the latest developments and new research directions currently being made world-wide in the earth sciences. It contains invited and refereed articles by leading younger researchers on their cutting-edge research, but aimed at a general scientific audience. This exciting volume explains how powerful methodologies such as satellite remote sensing and supercomputing simulations are now profoundly changing research in the earth sciences; how the earth system is increasingly being viewed in a holistic way, linking the atmosphere, ocean and solid earth; and how the societal impact of the research in the earth sciences has never been more important. Published by Imperial College Press in collaboration with the Royal Society of London, the book features many articles originating from invited papers published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Eleven of the distinguished contributors hold prestigious Royal Society Research Fellowships
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Thompson, J Michael T Advances In Earth Science: From Earthquakes To Global Warming Singapore : World Scientific Publishing Company,c2007 9781860947612
Subject Earth sciences.;Global environmental change.;Geodynamics
Electronic books
Alt Author Sammonds, Peter R
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