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Author Stockwell, Robert
Title English Words : History and Structure
Imprint Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2001
©2001
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (222 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Cover -- Half-title -- Title -- Copyright -- Dedication -- Contents -- An introduction to the textbook -- 1 Word origins -- 1 Inheritance -- 2 Neologisms (Creation de novo) -- 3 Blending -- 4 Acronyms -- 4.1 Initialismsx -- 4.2 Reverse acronymsx -- 5 Creation by shortening -- 6 Derivation -- 6.1 Derivation by affixationx -- 6.2 Derivation without affixation -- 7 Compounding -- 8 Eponyms -- 8.1 Based on personal names -- 8.2 Based on geographical names -- 8.3 Based on names from literature, folklore, and mythology -- 8.4 Based on commercial brand names -- 9 Other sources -- 2 The background of English -- 1 The family history of English -- 1.1 Indo-European -- 1.2 The Germanic branch -- 1.3 English -- 2 Historical influences on the early vocabulary of English -- 2.1 The indigenous vocabulary of Old English -- 2.1.1 Earliest loanwords -- 2.1.2 The Scandinavian element -- 2.2 English becomes a hybrid -- 2.2.1 French loanwords in Middle English -- 3 Composition of the Early Modern and Modern English vocabulary -- 1 The Early Modern English cultural scene -- 2 Vocabulary enrichment during the Renaissance -- 3 Transmission, etymology, source identification -- 4 Summary of early British history and loanwords in English -- Latin -- 4 Smaller than words: morphemes and types of morphemes -- 1 The smallest meaningful units -- 1.1 Morphemes and syllables -- 1.2 The properties of morphemes -- 2 Types of morphemes -- 2.1 Roots -- 2.2 Affixes -- 2.3 Functions of affixes -- 3 Compounds -- 4 Hyphens -- 5 Cognates -- 5.1 Shared derivation -- 5.2 Shared form and meaning -- 6 Finding roots in a dictionary -- 5 Allomorphy, phonetics, and affixation -- 1 Morphological rules -- 1.1 Types of allomorphy -- 1.1.1 Zero allomorphy -- 1.1.2 Irregular allomorphy -- 1.1.3 Regular allomorphy -- 1.1.4 Derivation -- 1.2 Origins of allomorphyx -- 1.2.1 Phonetic change
2 The sounds of English -- 2.1 Phonetic notation systems -- 2.2 Phonetic symbols in square brackets -- 2.3 Consonantal parameters -- 2.3.1 Place of articulation -- 2.3.2 Manner of articulation -- 2.3.3 Voicing -- 2.4 English vowels -- 2.4.1 Vowel variation -- 2.4.2 Vowel parameters -- 2.4.3 Reduction of vowels -- 3 The affixes of English -- 3.1 Prefixes -- 3.2 Suffixes -- 6 Replacement rules -- 1 Assimilation and types of assimilation -- 2 Labial assimilation -- 2.1 Exceptions to labial assimilation -- 3 Voicing assimilation -- 3.1 Sound versus spelling -- 3.2 Left-to-right voicing assimilation -- 4 Total assimilation -- 4.1 Total assimilation of prefixes -- 4.2 Double consonant spellings -- 5 Other replacement rules -- 5.1 T-Lenition -- 5.1.1 T-Lenition and spelling -- 5.1.2 T-Lenition, palatalization, and affirication -- 5.1.3 Summary of palatalization and affirication after T-Lenition -- 5.2 D-Lenition -- 5.2.1 Summary: palatalization and affirication of dental stops -- 5.3 v-Vocalization -- 6 Vowel replacements -- 6.1 A-Lenition -- 6.2 E-Lenition -- 6.3 Multiple lenition -- 7 Backness assimilation -- 7 Deletion rules and other kinds of allomorphy -- 1 Consonant deletion -- 1.1 S-Degemination -- 1.1.1 Spelling exceptions -- 1.1.2 Exceptions to S-Degemination -- 1.1.3 Other affixes in-s -- 1.2 X-drop -- 1.2.1 Exceptions to X-drop -- 1.3 N-drop -- 1.3.1 Pronunciation and boundaries -- 1.3.2 N-drop in other preffixes -- 2 Vowel deletions -- 2.1 V-drop in hiatus -- 2.1.1 Exceptions -- 2.2 Syllable syncopation -- 2.2.1 Preservation of and -- 3 Expansion rules:vowel or consonant epenthesis -- 3.1 U-Epenthesis -- 3.2 P-Epenthesis -- 8 Fossilized allomorphy: false cognates and other etymological pitfalls -- 1 Fossilized allomorphy -- 2 Gradation -- 2.1 Gradation in Germanic -- 3 Rhotacism -- 3.1 Rhotacism in Latin -- 3.2 Rhotacism in Germanic
4 Metathesis (transposition) -- 5 Obscure cognates: completely unpredictable allomorphy -- 6 False cognates -- 6.1 Boundary misplacement -- 6.2 Homophony in roots and affixes -- 6.2.1 Root homophony -- 6.3 Affix homophony -- 6.3.1 Phonetic rules and homophony -- 6.3.2 Homophony of grammatical suffixes -- 6.3.3 Mixed homophony: affixes and roots -- 7 Pseudo-suffixes -- 8 Semantic variation -- 9 Multiple derivatives - multiple meanings -- 10 Multiple affixes - same meaning -- 9 Semantic change and semantic guesswork -- 1 Terminology -- 1.1 Diversity of meanings -- 1.2 Other -onyms -- 2 How meanings change ("semantic change") -- 2.1 External forces -- 2.1.1 Technology and current relevance -- 2.2 Accidental associations -- 2.3 Internal forces -- 2.3.1 Analogy -- 2.4 Loss of specificity -- 3 The results of semantic change -- 3.1 Scope -- 3.2 Status: amelioration and pejoration -- 3.3 Mixed examples -- 3.4 Narrowing/specialization -- 4 Types of status change -- 5 Changing cultural relevance -- 6 Semantic guesswork -- 10 The pronunciation of classical words in English -- 1 Unassimilated classical words -- 1.1 The pronunciation of consonants in unassimilated classical words -- 1.2 The pronunciation of vowels in unassimilated classical words -- 2 The pronunciation of fully assimilated classical words -- 3 Finding the main stress -- 3.1 The role of final syllables -- 3.2 Steps in determination of main stress placement -- 4 Stress-changing affixes -- 4.1 Affixes which attract the stress to the syllable on their left -- Appendix I: an introduction to dictionaries -- 1 The origins of dictionaries -- 2 Types of dictionaries -- 2.1 Unabridged -- 2.2 The Oxford English Dictionary -- 2.2.1 The editors -- 2.2.2 Reduced versions of the OED -- 2.3 Merriam-Webster -- 2.4 Webster's competitors -- 2.5 Writing dictionaries -- 2.6 Desktop dictionaries
2.6.1 For British users -- 2.6.2 For American users -- 2.6.3 Important differences between dictionaries -- 2.7 Dictionary shelf-life -- Appendix II: morpheme list -- Index
An introduction to some of the basic principles of linguistic analysis and a helpful manual for vocabulary discernment and enrichment
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Stockwell, Robert English Words : History and Structure Cambridge : Cambridge University Press,c2001 9780521790123
Subject English language -- Etymology.;English language -- Morphology.;English language -- Word formation.;Vocabulary -- Problems, exercises, etc
Electronic books
Alt Author Minkova, Donka
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