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020    9780309575430|q(electronic bk.) 
020    |z9780309046985 
035    (MiAaPQ)EBC3376446 
035    (Au-PeEL)EBL3376446 
035    (CaPaEBR)ebr10056719 
035    (CaONFJC)MIL21154 
035    (OCoLC)697744882 
040    MiAaPQ|beng|erda|epn|cMiAaPQ|dMiAaPQ 
050  4 TD178.5.O67 1991 
100 1  Development, Committee on Opportunities in Applied 
       Environmental Research and 
245 10 Opportunities in Applied Environmental Research and 
       Development 
264  1 Washington, D.C. :|bNational Academies Press,|c1991 
264  4 |c©1991 
300    1 online resource (185 pages) 
336    text|btxt|2rdacontent 
337    computer|bc|2rdamedia 
338    online resource|bcr|2rdacarrier 
505 0  Opportunities in Applied Environmental Research and 
       Development -- Copyright -- Preface -- Contents -- 
       Opportunities in Applied Environmental Research and 
       Development -- INTRODUCTION -- REFERENCES -- Appendix A 
       Waste Reduction: Research Needs In Applied Social Sciences
       -- SUMMARY -- WASTE REDUCTION -- APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE 
       RESEARCH NEEDS -- MEASUREMENT -- INSTITUTIONAL AND 
       BEHAVIORAL BARRIERS -- POLICY INCENTIVES -- NONINDUSTRIAL 
       SECTORS: THREE EXAMPLES -- Agriculture -- County and 
       Municipal Governments -- Waste Reduction in Municipal 
       Wastewater Management -- WASTE REDUCTION: RESEARCH NEEDS 
       IN APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES -- INTRODUCTION -- Background -
       - Previous Studies by the National Research Council -- 
       Workshop Focus -- WASTE REDUCTION -- Current Definitions -
       - Basic Concepts -- THE NEED FOR APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCE 
       RESEARCH -- Barriers to Waste Reduction Research -- Lack 
       of Research Programs and Expertise -- Commitment to 
       Applied Social Science -- DEFINITION AND MEASUREMENT -- 
       Background -- Measurement at the Micro Level -- 
       Measurement at the Aggregate Level -- Measurement Issues -
       - Measurement Research Needs -- INSTITUTIONAL AND 
       BEHAVIORAL BARRIERS -- Background -- Accounting and 
       Financial Analysis -- Management of Innovation -- 
       Organizational Goals and Effectiveness -- Contingency 
       Organization Theory -- Corporate Strategy -- Behavioral 
       Questions in Other Sectors -- Institutional and Behavioral
       Issues -- Institutional and Behavioral Research Needs -- 
       PUBLIC POLICY INCENTIVES -- Background -- Existing Policy 
       Incentives -- Economics of Waste Reduction -- 
       Implementation -- Issues Concerning Policy Incentives -- 
       Research Needs on Policy Incentives -- NONINDUSTRIAL 
       SECTORS THREE EXAMPLES -- Research Needs in Agriculture --
       County and Municipal Research Needs -- Municipal 
       Wastewater Treatment Research Needs -- REFERENCES 
505 8  WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS AND AGENDA -- WORKSHOP PAPERS -- 
       RESEARCH NEEDS FOR WASTE REDUCTION -- Background -- 
       Previous NRC Studies -- Research Issues in Waste Reduction
       -- I. DEFINITION AND MEASUREMENT OF WASTE REDUCTION -- II.
       INSTITUTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL BARRIERS TO WASTE REDUCTION 
       (Background: see esp. papers by Hollod, Todd, Ashford) -- 
       III. PUBLIC POLICY INCENTIVES FOR WASTE REDUCTION 
       (Background: see esp. papers by Curlee, Nichols, McHugh) -
       - Caveat -- PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY -- ECONOMIC, ENGINEERING,
       AND POLICY OPTIONS FOR WASTE REDUCTION -- INTRODUCTION: 
       SOME BACKGROUND COMMENTS AND QUESTIONS -- FACTORS 
       INCREASING WASTES GENERATION -- Product Mix and Product 
       Proliferation -- Product Output Specifications -- New 
       Products -- TECHNOLOGIC OPTIONS FOR WASTE REDUCTION -- 
       STIMULI TO WASTE REDUCTION -- External Factors -- Internal
       Factors -- Governmental Actions -- Responses to Stimuli --
       CONCLUDING COMMENTS -- REFERENCES -- ACCOUNTING AND THE 
       ENVIRONMENT: PATCHING THE INFORMATION FABRIC -- Nature of 
       Accounting -- Proposal I-Revisions To Product Costing 
       Systems -- Proposal II: Capital Markets and The Valuation 
       Of Firms-Levelling The Playing Field -- ENDNOTES -- 
       ACCOUNTING AND THE ENVIRONMENT: PATCHING THE INFORMATION 
       FABRIC -- SOURCE REDUCTION: WHAT IS IT AND HOW CAN WE 
       ACCOMPLISH IT? -- INTRODUCTION -- THE DEFINITION OF SOURCE
       REDUCTION -- THE CASE STUDY -- REPORTING RELEASES -- 
       MEASURING SOURCE REDUCTION -- REGULATION OF SOURCE 
       REDUCTION -- THE REAL ISSUE -- RECOMMENDATIONS -- APPENDIX
       -- USE OF OFF-SITE RECYCLED SOLVENT -- ON-SITE RECYCLING -
       - PURCHASE NEW DEGREASER -- PURCHASE CARBON ADSORPTION 
       DEVICE -- SUMMARY OF SOURCE REDUCTION OPTIONS -- 
       REFERENCES -- Appendix B Measuring Change in Ecosystems: 
       Research and Monitorning Strategies -- MEASURING CHANGE IN
       ECOSYSTEMS: RESEARCH AND MONITORING STRATEGIES -- 
       INTRODUCTION -- PRINCIPAL FINDINGS -- CONCLUSIONS 
505 8  REFERENCES -- WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS -- WORKSHOP PAPERS -- 
       ECOSYSTEM RISK ASSESSMENT: CASE STUDIES OF NATURAL 
       RESOURCE PERTURBATION -- Ecosystem Perturbation -- Case 
       Studies -- Mono Basin -- Glen Canyon -- Relationships To 
       Epa Priorities -- SELECTED DEVELOPMENT NEEDS FOR ASSESSING
       ECOLOGICAL RISK AT THE COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM LEVEL -- 
       Administrative/Management -- Examples of Existing Programs
       -- Technical -- BIBLIOGRAPHY -- Appendix C Research to 
       Improve Predictions of Long-Term Chemical Toxicity -- 
       SUMMARY -- RESEARCH TO IMPROVE PREDICTIONS OF LONG-TERM 
       CHEMICAL TOXICITY -- INTRODUCTION -- STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY 
       RELATIONSHIPS -- Status and Outlook -- Research and 
       Resource Needs -- Review of SAR Methodologies -- 
       Validation -- Availability of Relevant Toxicological Data 
       -- Treatment of Physicochemical Properties in Models of 
       Long-Term Toxicity -- The Molecular Basis of Toxic Effects
       -- Incorporation of Functional Criteria Relating to 
       Toxicological End Points -- Development of Methods for 
       Identifying Nongenotoxic Carcinogens -- Funding -- SHORT-
       TERM IN-VIVO AND IN-VITRO TESTS -- Properties, Uses, and 
       Limitations of STTs -- Research and Resource Needs -- 
       Recruitment and Training of Personnel -- Application to 
       Nonbinary Toxicological End Points -- Coordination of Test
       Development and Validation -- Assessment of Applicability 
       to Regulatory Uses -- Application To Human Specimens -- 
       Broadening the Spectrum of Toxicological End Points -- 
       Periodic Re-evaluation and Revalidation -- More Adequate 
       Reporting of Relevant Data -- Extrapolation to Humans -- 
       Further Problems and Uses of STTs -- More Effective 
       Coordination of Test Development and Validation -- WHOLE-
       ANIMAL TESTS -- The Strategies of Whole-Animal Tests -- 
       RESEARCH AND RESOURCE NEEDS -- Validation by Appropriate 
       Studies in Human Subjects -- Funding -- Broadening of Risk
       Assessment End Points 
505 8  Re-evaluation of Risk Assessment Models -- Elucidation of 
       Causative Mechanisms of Toxicity -- Grouping of Chemicals 
       by Mechanisms of Toxicity -- Methodologies for Complex 
       Mixtures -- Studies in Animals with Special Phenotypes and
       Genotypes -- Integrated Analysis of Dose-Response 
       Relationships -- VALIDATING PREDICTIVE TESTS -- Status and
       Outlook -- Research Needs and Possibilities -- Studies of 
       Heavily Exposed Populations -- International 
       Epidemiological Studies -- Registries of High-Level 
       Exposures -- Improvement of Exposure Measurement and 
       Quantification -- Biological Markers of Exposure and 
       Effect -- Molecular Approaches -- Information on Disease 
       Incidence -- Training -- STRATEGY, POLICY, AND RESOURCES -
       - Linking and Integrating Evaluative Approaches -- 
       Structure-Activity Relationships -- Short-Term In-Vitro 
       and In-Vivo Tests -- Whole-Animal Tests -- Validation -- 
       Research Needs and Possibilities -- Potency and Severity 
       of Toxic Response -- Exposure Assessment -- Evaluation of 
       Mixtures -- Research Incentives -- Coordination and 
       Planning -- REFERENCES -- RELATED PUBLICATIONS -- WORKSHOP
       PARTICIPANTS -- Appendix D Research Needs in Anticipation 
       of Future Environmental Problems -- SUMMARY -- RESEARCH 
       NEEDS IN ANTICIPATION OF FUTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS -- 
       INTRODUCTION -- Past Anticipatory Research Efforts -- 
       Workshop Focus -- IDENTIFICATION OF ARISING PROBLEMS -- 
       Monitoring Physical Phenomena -- Societal and Economic 
       Monitoring -- Forecasting Long-Term Socioeconomic Trends -
       - Goal- and Surprise-Oriented Scenario Construction -- 
       Comparative Experience -- Specific Areas That Require 
       Monitoring -- Biotic Monitoring -- Abiotic Monitoring -- 
       Societal Monitoring -- Information Dissemination -- TWO 
       POTENTIAL PROBLEMS ADVANCED MATERIALS AND RENEWABLE ENERGY
       -- Renewable Energy -- Advanced Materials -- DESIGN FOR AN
       EXPLORATORY RESEARCH PROGRAM 
505 8  Objectives of an Anticipatory Research Program -- 
       Implementation -- Institutional Arrangements -- 
       Environmental Scientists and Engineers -- Environmental 
       Research and Development Funding -- ASSEMBLING AN 
       EXPLORATORY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM -- 
       CONCLUSIONS -- WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS -- Appendix E 
       Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and 
       Resources -- STAFF 
588    Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other
       sources 
590    Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest 
       Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access 
       may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated 
       libraries 
650  0 Environmental protection -- Research.;Pollution -- 
       Research -- United States.;Environmental policy -- United 
       States 
655  4 Electronic books 
700 1  Council, National Research 
700 1  Studies, Division on Earth and Life 
700 1  Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources 
776 08 |iPrint version:|aDevelopment, Committee on Opportunities 
       in Applied Environmental Research and|tOpportunities in 
       Applied Environmental Research and Development|dWashington,
       D.C. : National Academies Press,c1991|z9780309046985 
856 40 |uhttps://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/sinciatw/
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