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Author Program, Academy Industry
Title Papers Commissioned for a Workshop on the Federal Role in Research and Development
Imprint Washington : National Academies Press, 1984
©1985
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (386 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note PAPERS COMMISSIONED FOR A WORKSHOP ON THE FEDERAL ROLE IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT -- CONTENTS -- INTRODUCTION -- THE FEDERAL ROLE IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT -- THE FEDERAL ROLE IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT -- GENERAL -- A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE EVOLUTION OF FEDERAL INVESTMENT IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT SINCE WORLD WAR II -- PRE-WORLD WAR II -- WORLD WAR II AND ITS AFTERMATH -- THE POSTWAR PERIOD -- THE DOMINANCE OF THE MILITARY COMPONENT -- FEDERAL SUPPORT OF SCIENCE -- CONCLUDING COMMENTS -- NOTES AND REFERENCES -- APPENDIX -- FEDERAL SUPPORT OF APPLIED RESEARCH: A REVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES EXPERIENCE -- PRESIDENTIAL EFFORTS TO STIMULATE INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION -- CIVILIAN INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM -- NEW TECHNOLOGICAL OPPORTUNITIES PROGRAM -- INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION INITIATIVES -- AGENCY AND SECTORAL INITIATIVES -- THE NSF EXPERIENCE WITH IRRPOS AND RANN -- FEDERAL FUNDING OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY R&D AND DEMONSTRATION -- THE COOPERATIVE AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM -- SOME LONG-TERM SUCCESSES -- AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH -- AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH -- APPLIED RESEARCH IN THE BIOMEDICAL FIELD -- GENERIC RESEARCH IN THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS -- SOME COMMENTS ON THE ROLE OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE -- LESSONS FROM THE U.S. EXPERIENCE -- NOTES AND REFERENCES -- ECONOMICS, POLITICS, AND GOVERNMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT -- POLITICAL INCENTIVES AND R&D POLICIES -- IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SELECTION OF R&D PROGRAMS -- IMPLICATIONS FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT -- ILLUSTRATIONS FROM RECENT PROGRAMS -- THE CLINCH RIVER BREEDER REACTOR AND THE SPACE SHUTTLE -- COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES -- SYNTHETIC FUELS -- SEMICONDUCTORS AND COMPUTERS -- CONCLUSIONS -- NOTES AND REFERENCES -- THE GOVERNMENT ROLE IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY -- THE PRIMARY ROLE OF GOVERNMENTS IN SPONSORING HIGHER EDUCATION
MILITARY RESEARCH AND ITS IMPACT ON THE CIVILIAN SECTOR -- PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR FUNDING-THE COOPERATIVE SPIRIT -- DISPARITIES WITHIN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY COUNTRIES ON THE IMPORTANCE OF R&D IN PUBLIC POLICY-THE EUROPEAN DIMENSION -- NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS: A U.S. SUCCESS STORY -- SOME NATIONAL AND MULTINATIONAL INITIATIVES TO PROMOTE HIGH-TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIES -- RECENT INITIATIVES OF THE COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES -- FUTURE ACTIVITIES -- CONCLUSIONS -- NOTES AND REFERENCES -- ECONOMIC ANALYSIS -- ECONOMIC MEASURES OF THE RETURNS TO FEDERAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT -- ECONOMIC ISSUES AND MODELS -- METHODS AND RATIONALES FOR RATE OF RETURN CALCULATIONS -- PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSES -- FEDERAL R&D AS A COMPLEMENT OR A SUBSTITUTE -- DISCOUNTED COST-BENEFIT METHODS -- SURVEY METHODS -- MEASUREMENT AND DATA ISSUES -- FEDERAL R&D INPUTS -- Temporal Aggregation -- Source Versus Use Definitions of Inputs -- Other Definitional Problems -- THE OUTPUT OF FEDERAL R&D -- Identification Issues -- Other Valuation Issues -- SUMMARY AND PROSPECTUS -- NOTES AND REFERENCES -- ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF FEDERAL INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURE ON PRIVATE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY -- THE MARKET FOR PRIVATE R&D OUTPUT -- CROWDING OUT -- SPILLOVERS -- DEMAND PULL -- SUMMARY AND TENTATIVE CONCLUSIONS -- NOTES AND REFERENCES -- MEASURING ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF FEDERAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURES: RECENT HISTORY WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON FEDERAL -- DIRECT EFFECTS OF GOVERNMENT R&D ON PRODUCTIVITY -- STUDIES RELATING GOVERNMENT R&D TO PRIVATE R&D INVESTMENT -- SOME INFERENCES AND HYPOTHESES -- U.S. CONTRACT R&D AND INTERNATIONAL R&D TRENDS -- THE INVESTMENT FUNCTION FOR PRIVATE R&D -- REFERENCES -- SELECTED SECTORS -- RETURNS ON FEDERAL INVESTMENTS: THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES -- NATIONAL OBJECTIVES FOR R&D
EVALUATING RESEARCH CONTRIBUTIONS -- DIRECT RESULTS FROM PHYSICS -- ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS -- NUCLEAR PHYSICS -- ATOMIC, MOLECULAR, AND ELECTRON PHYSICS -- CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS -- RETURNS FROM CHEMISTRY -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: MEASURING THE RETURNS ON INVESTMENT -- BASIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH -- PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INVESTMENT -- BIOMEDICAL INNOVATIONS AND NONBIOMEDICAL INVESTMENTS -- DOMESTIC VERSUS FOREIGN INVESTMENTS -- ASSIGNING HEALTH BENEFITS TO MULTIPLE INVESTMENTS -- VALUING HEALTH BENEFITS -- INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSFERS -- PRIVATE GAINS AS A LOWER BOUND ON PUBLIC RETURNS -- FINAL COMMENTS: WINNERS VERSUS LOSERS -- REFERENCES -- ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT -- BACKGROUND -- BASIC RESEARCH -- WHY FEDERALLY FUNDED R&D? -- APPLIED RESEARCH -- LARGE PROJECTS -- REASONS FOR FAILURE -- ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES -- CONCLUSIONS -- NOTES AND REFERENCES -- IMPACT OF DEFENSE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS ON THE CIVILIAN SECTOR -- BRIEF HISTORY OF DEFENSE RESEARCH -- THE BIRTH OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY -- RECENT EXPERIENCE -- THE ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION -- THE INDUSTRIAL LINK -- OUTLOOK -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- MEASURING THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FEDERAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENT IN CIVILIAN SPACE ACTIVITIES -- DEFINITIONAL CONCERNS AND THE SCOPE OF STUDIES REVIEWED -- ECONOMIC MEASUREMENT APPROACHES APPLIED TO SPACE R&D -- MACROECONOMIC ANALYSIS -- Major Macroeconomic Studies Using Secondary Data Sources -- A Survey Approach to Macroeconomic Analysis: The European Space Agency Study -- MAJOR MICROECONOMIC STUDIES -- The Mathematica Study -- The 1977 Mathtech. Inc. Technology Transfer Study -- Other Microeconomic Studies -- ACTUAL MEASURES OF NASA'S TECHNOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT -- Evidence on the Time Span for Technology Transfer to the Private Sector -- Patent Statistics
Information Dissemination -- Other Economic Impact Studies -- CURRENT TRENDS IN "JUSTIFYING" SPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT -- SPACE AS AN INDUSTRY -- TRENDS IN THE ECONOMIC STRUCTURE OF SPACE ACTIVITIES -- RECENT CHANGES IN ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS OF SPACE ACTIVITY -- WHAT HAS BEEN LEARNED ABOUT THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF SPACE R&D AND ABOUT MEASURING THE IMPACTS -- CHARACTERISTICS OF SPACE RESEARCH THAT CAN BE MEASURED -- ECONOMIC MEASURES OF SPACE R&D TO BE AVOIDED -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY -- FEDERAL FUNDING OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN TRANSPORTATION: THE CASE OF AVIATION -- INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN THE U.S. COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY -- THE RECORD OF TECHNICAL PROGRESS -- R&D INVESTMENT -- DATA SOURCES AND CONSTRUCTION -- THE ROLE OF NACA AND NASA -- MILITARY-SPONSORED RESEARCH -- INDUSTRY-FINANCED R&D -- THE COMPOSITION OF EXPENDITURES -- R&D INVESTMENT: CONCLUSION -- THE DEMAND FOR INNOVATION: THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT REGULATION -- AN EVALUATION OF THE TECHNOLOGY POLICY STRUCTURE IN THE COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY -- THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF CAB AND NASA POLICIES, 1966-1993 -- IMPLICATIONS FOR GENERIC RESEARCH POLICY -- R&D SUPPORT WITHOUT DIFFUSION SUPPORT: AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS CONTROL -- CONCLUSION -- NOTES AND REFERENCES -- FEDERAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND U.S. AGRICULTURE: AN ASSESSMENT OF ROLE AND PRODUCTIVITY EFFECTS -- THE STRUCTURE OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR -- THE FEDERAL ROLE IN R&D RELATED DIRECTLY TO AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION -- HISTORICAL ORIGINS -- CURRENT LEVELS OF INVOLVEMENT -- EFFECTS OF FEDERAL R&D FOCUSED DIRECTLY ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION -- EVIDENCE OF EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENT STATION R&D ACTIVITIES ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION -- PROBLEMS IN MEASUREMENT OF R&D EFFECTS ON PRODUCTION -- EVIDENCE OF R&D EFFECTS ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION -- CRITICISMS OF EVIDENCE OF R&D EFFECTS
REFERENCES -- ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Program, Academy Industry Papers Commissioned for a Workshop on the Federal Role in Research and Development Washington : National Academies Press,c1984
Subject Federal aid to research -- United States -- Evaluation.;Research -- United States -- Finance
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