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Author Durrieu, Roberto
Title Rethinking Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism in International Law : Towards a New Global Legal Order
Imprint Leiden : BRILL, 2013
©2013
book jacket
Edition 1st ed
Descript 1 online resource (506 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Intro -- Contents -- Acknowledgments -- Foreword -- Note About Formatting -- List of Abbreviations -- Table of Cases -- Table of Legislation -- Introduction -- Part I The Main Extra-Legal and Legal Aspects Concerning Money Laundering & Financing of Terrorism -- Chapter One The Main Extra-Legal Factors -- 1. Overview -- 2. What Is 'Money Laundering'? -- 3. How Does Money Laundering Operate? -- 3.1. Why Do Criminals Choose Money Laundering? -- 3.2. Understanding the Stages of a Money Laundering Process -- 3.3. The Internationalization of Money Laundering Operations -- 3.4. A Mutable and Changeable Process -- 3.5. A White Collar Crime -- 3.6. A Modern Offence -- 3.7. Quantum -- 4. Evaluating the Causes and Effects of Money Laundering-Why Are Some Markets/Territories More Attractive Than Others to Submit Criminal Assets for Laundering? -- 5. Money Laundering and Its Nexus with the Financing of Terrorism -- 6. The Link or Nexus between 'Money Laundering' and 'Money Dirtying' Operations -- Chapter Two Architecture of the International Legal Order against Money Laundering & Financing of Terrorism -- 1. Overview -- 2. Reasons for Taking Legal Actions against Money Laundering & Financing of Terrorism -- 2.1. Why Prohibit Money Laundering? -- 2.2. Why Prohibit 'Financing of Terrorism'? -- 3. Evolution of the International Legal Order against the Criminal Finance -- 3.1. The Origins of Money Laundering Law -- 3.2. International Conventions and EU Directives (Hard Law Instruments): Drug Trafficking, Organized Crime, Terrorism and, Finally, Corruption -- 3.2.1. First Phase: Internationalization of Drug-Money Laundering Offences -- 3.2.2. Second Phase: Internationalization of the Anti-ML Legal Order for Countering Organized Crime -- 3.2.3. Third Phase: After the 9/11 Attacks, the Anti-ML Legal Order Was Expanded to Include the Financing of Terrorism
3.2.4. Fourth Phase: Internationalization of Anti-Money Laundering Norms to Control Public Corruption -- 3.3. International Recommendations, Model Laws and Resolutions (Soft Law Instruments) -- 3.4. Examining the Evolution of the Global Legal Order in Hard Law Instruments -- 4. The Main Goal: To Harmonize and Integrate the Global Legal Order against Money Laundering -- 4.1. Understanding the Relevance in the Harmonization of Anti-Money Laundering Norms in the Sphere of 'Hard' International Law -- 4.2. Some Inconsistencies and Problems in the Harmonization Process: A Way Forward -- 4.3. Final Comments -- 5. The Preventive-Regulatory Approach: Providing a Definition and Analysis of the International 'Anti-Money Laundering/Countering Financing of Terrorism' (AML-CFT) System -- 5.1. General Overview and Definition of the Regulatory AML-CFT System -- 5.2. The New AML-CFT Regulatory System and the Right to Privacy -- 6. The Punitive Approach: The Transnational Crime of ML -- 6.1. Towards a 'Core' International Crime of Money Laundering? -- 6.2. The (Too Ambiguous) Crime of Money Laundering as Drafted in Hard Law Instruments-Reasons for Adopting a New, Less Ambiguous and Better Structured Definition of the Treaty Crime of ML -- 6.3. The Condition of 'Dual Criminality' in the Context of International Cooperation between Countries -- Part II A Rights-Based Analysis of Money Laundering Offences: A Global Comparative Perspective -- Chapter Three Analysis of the Social Values Protected By Money Laundering Offences -- 1. Overview -- 2. Preliminary Comments: The Criminalization Process and the Principle of ultima ratio of Criminal Law -- 3. The Crime of Money Laundering: A 'Uni-Offensive' Crime, a 'Multi-Offensive' Crime or Neither? -- 3.1. Money Laundering as a Natural Consequence or a sine qua non Condition of the Predicate Offence
3.2. The Administration of Justice as the Main Social Value -- 3.3. The Socio-Economic and Financial System as the Main Social Value -- 3.4. Stability, Sovereignty and Security of States as the Main Social Value -- 4. Towards an Autonomous and Multi-Offensive Crime of Money Laundering? -- 5. Some Final Thoughts: The Right Way Forward -- Chapter Four The Physical Element or actus reus of Money Laundering -- 1. Overview -- 2. The Actions of Laundering -- 2.1. Conversion or Transfer of Proceeds of Crime and the Ulterior Intent to Conceal These Proceeds -- 2.2. Concealment or Disguise of Proceeds of Crime -- 2.3. Acquisition, Possession or Use of Proceeds of Crime -- 2.4. The Criminalized Acts of Laundering in Light of the 'Harm' of Money-Laundering: The Right Way Forward -- 3. Examining the Word 'Property' That Represents the 'Proceeds of Crime' -- 3.1. Discussing the General Features of the Word 'Property': A Global Comparative Perspective -- 3.2. The Problem of 'Originated' or 'Surrogated' Proceeds of Crime and the so-called 'Chain ML Process' -- 4. Key Aspects Related to the Predicate Offence of Money Laundering -- 4.1. Defining the Scope of the Predicate Offence -- 4.1.1. A Global Comparative Analysis of the Legislative Models to Define Predicate Offences -- 4.1.2. Inconsistencies in Defining the Scope of Predicate Offences and the Condition of Dual Criminality -- 4.1.3. Towards an All-Crimes Approach to Define Predicate Offences, but Including a Quantitative Limitation Clause and Penalizing 'Smurfing' Conducts as Well -- 4.1.4. Some Final Thoughts -- 4.2. Tax Fraud as a Predicate Offence of Money Laundering -- 4.3. A Prior or Simultaneous Conviction for the Predicate Offence as a Prerequisite for a Conviction of ML? Analysis of Different Alternatives -- 4.4. Evaluating the Levels of Evidence to Prove the Existence of a Predicate Offence
4.5. Establishing the Existence of a Predicate Offence versus the Right to be Presumed Innocent (The Non-Reversal of the Burden of Proof) -- 4.6. Circumstantial Evidence and Its Relevance to Prove the Existence of a Predicate Offence -- 5. A Debate: Administrative or Civil Offences as Predicate Offences of Money Laundering Offences? -- 6. A Final Debate: The Transferring, Laundering or Handling of Legal Funds with the Intent to Promote the Carrying On of Criminal Activities as a Criminal Offence -- Chapter Five The Mental or Subjective Element of Money Laundering -- 1. Overview -- 2. Defining the Levels of Mind and the Degrees of Negligence in Common and Civil Law Systems -- 3. The Intentional Crime of ML: Analysis of both dolus directus/Actual Knowledge and dolus eventualis/Recklessness Levels of mens rea -- 3.1. Knowledge That the Property Involved Represents the Proceeds of Crime -- 3.2. Knowledge of the Circumstances and Consequences of the Acts of Laundering -- 3.3. An Ulterior and Specific Intent to Conceal or Disguise the Proceeds -- 4. Mistake of Fact in the Crime of Money Laundering -- 5. Proof of Knowledge and Ulterior (Specific) Intent -- 6. Is There a Place for a Negligent ML Offence? Arguments in Favor of Only Penalizing Intentional Crimes of ML -- 7. Conclusion -- Chapter Six Should the ML Offence Apply to the Person Who Committed the Predicate Offence? -- 1. Overview -- 2. A Global Comparative Perspective -- 3. Arguments in Favor and against the Adoption of a ML Offence That Does Not Apply to the Person(s) Who Committed the Predicate Offence -- 4. The Non-Punishment of Self-Launderers Could Generate Impunity -- 5. Concluding Comments: The Supremacy of the Autonomous Approach -- Part III Jurisdictional Problems Over Money Laundering Offences -- Chapter Seven Establishing Jurisdiction over Money Laundering -- 1. Overview
2. The Various Forms of Jurisdiction over Money Laundering Offences -- 2.1. Defining the Various Forms of Jurisdiction -- 2.2. An International Comparative Analysis -- 3. The Condition of Dual Criminality in the Context of Predicate Offences Perpetrated in a Foreign Country or Territory -- 4. The Inclusion of Extra-Territorial Jurisdiction over ML Offences at the Domestic Level -- 4.1. Introduction -- 4.2. The Spanish Case Study: Universal Jurisdiction over ML Offences (Article 301 (4) of the Spanish Penal Code) -- 4.3. The United States Case Study: The Leading Case 'Pasquantino et al. v. the US' -- 4.4. Some Final Thoughts -- 5. The Crime of Money Laundering within the Jurisdiction of a Specialized International Penal Court -- 5.1. Introduction -- 5.2. How Is the International Criminal Court (ICC) Organized? -- 5.3. The Crime of Money Laundering as a 'Serious' and 'Transnational' Offence That Concerns the International Community -- 5.4. National v. International Jurisdiction for the Prosecution of Serious and Transnational ML Offences -- 5.5. Examples to Include Serious and Transnational ML Offences before the International Judiciary -- Conclusions and Policy Implications -- 1. Conclusions Part I -- 2. Conclusions Part II -- 3. Conclusions Part III -- 4. General Conclusions: A Way Forward -- Appendix One Relevant Money Laundering Cases -- Selected Bibliography -- Index
In Rethinking Money Laundering & Financing of Terrorism in International Law: Towards a New Global Legal Order, Roberto Durrieu provides a broad and original analysis of the phenomenon of money laundering, through a thorough examination of the the financing of terrorism. The necessity of excluding the financing of terrorism from the legal definition of money laundering is clearly illustrated through extensive, original and comparative research
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Durrieu, Roberto Rethinking Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism in International Law : Towards a New Global Legal Order Leiden : BRILL,c2013 9789004207141
Subject Money laundering.;Terrorism -- Finance
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