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Author Arbache, Jorge Saba
Title Gender Disparities in Africa's Labor Market
Imprint Herndon : World Bank Publications, 2010
©2010
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (454 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Intro -- Contents -- Foreword -- About the Editors and Authors -- Acknowledgments -- Abbreviations -- Overview -- Why Study Gender Disparities in Africa's Labor Markets? -- Objective of This Book -- Countries Covered in the Studies -- Book Organization and Topics -- The Main Findings on Gender Disparities in Africa -- Policy Recommendations and the Way Forward -- PART 1 STYLIZED FACTS -- 1 Gender Disparities in Africa's Labor Markets: A Cross-Country Comparison Using Standardized Survey Data -- Data and Concepts -- Gender Differences in Labor Market Outcomes -- Gender Disparities at Work -- The Role of Educational Attainment and Gender Inequalities in Education -- Conclusions -- Annex -- PART 2 DISPARITIES IN EMPLOYMENT, PAY, EDUCATION, AND OTHER DIMENSIONS: A MICRO-ANALYSIS -- 2 Exploring the Gender Pay Gap Through Different Age Cohorts: The Case of Ethiopia -- Data and Concepts -- Methodology -- Results -- Conclusions -- Annex -- 3 Gender Disparities in the Malagasy Labor Market -- Characteristics of the Malagasy Labor Market -- Data, Definitions, and Methods -- Results -- Summary and Concluding Remarks -- Annex 3A Concepts and Methods -- Annex 3B Summary Statistics of the Variables Used in the Econometric Analysis -- Annex 3C Determinants of Sectoral Allocation -- Annex 3D Wage Employment Earnings Equations -- Annex 3E Earnings Gap Decompositions for Wage Workers -- 4 Gender Differences in Pay in African Manufacturing Firms -- Data and Descriptive Statistics -- Econometric Results -- Conclusions -- Annex 4A Tables -- Annex 4B Methodology -- 5 Addressing Gender Inequality in Ethiopia: Trends, Impacts, and the Way Forward -- An International Perspective on Trends in Gender Disparities -- National Data on Gender Disparities over the Last Decade -- The Macroeconomic Benefits of Addressing Gender Inequalities -- Insights from the MAMS Modeling
Conclusions and Policy Implications -- Annex 5A Tables -- Annex 5B A Brief Description of the Engendered Ethiopia MAMS Application -- PART 3 DISPARITIES IN LABOR INCOME: MACRO-MICRO SIMULATIONS -- 6 Gender, Time Use, and Labor Income in Guinea: Micro and Macro Analyses -- Introduction -- Gender, Labor Income, and Time Use from Household Survey Analysis -- Macroeconomic Analysis of Sectoral Growth and Labor Income Shares -- Sectoral Demand Shocks and Impact on Labor Income Shares by Gender -- Conclusion -- Annex 6A Construction of Total Income in the EBEIP Household Survey -- Annex 6B Block Decomposition of the SAM Multiplier Matrix -- 7 How Does Growth Affect Labor Income by Gender? A Structural Path Analysis for Tanzania -- Introduction -- Main Features of the 2001 Tanzania SAM -- Sectoral Growth and Impact on Labor Income Shares by Gender -- Structural Path Analysis -- Conclusions -- Annex 7A Structural Path Analysis -- PART 4 DISPARITIES IN TIME USE -- 8 Gender Disparities in Time Allocation, Time Poverty, and Labor Allocation Across Employment Sectors in Ethiopia -- Data, Concepts, and Methodology -- Results -- Conclusions -- Annex 8A.1 -- Annex 8A.2 -- 9 Domestic Work Time in Sierra Leone -- Introduction -- Basic Statistics -- Regression Analysis -- Conclusions -- PART 5 DISPARITIES IN BARGAINING POWER -- 10 Gender Labor Income Shares and Human Capital Investment in the Republic of Congo -- Introduction -- Income Sources in the Republic of Congo -- Impact of Gender Labor Income Shares on Consumption -- Conclusions -- 11 Income Generation and Intra-Household Decision Making: A Gender Analysis for Nigeria -- Introduction -- Data and Basic Statistics -- Econometric Analysis -- Conclusions -- Annex Detailed Regression Results -- Index -- Figures -- 1.1 Labor Force Participation Rate by Gender, around 2000
1.2 Relationships Between Male and Female Employment Ratios, around 2000 -- 1.3 Women's Share in Total Employment, around 2000 -- 1.4 Male-to-Female Employment Ratio by Country, around 2000 -- 1.5 Ratio of Unemployment Between Richest and Poorest Households, around 2000 -- 1.6 Incidence of Low-Paid Work in Total Wage Employment and Self-Employment, around 2000 -- 1.7 Weekly Female-to-Male Pay Ratios, around 2000 -- 1.8 Share of Employed Men and Women in Different Employment Status, around 2000 -- 1.9 Gender Differences in Sectors of Employment -- 1.10 Gender Differences in Literacy and Education, around 2000 -- 1.11 Gender Differences in Enrollment Ratios Among Children Ages 7-12 by Location, around 2000 -- 1.12 Gender Differences in Enrollment Ratios Among Children Ages 7-12 by Consumption Quintiles, around 2000 -- 3.1 Distribution of Individuals Aged 15 and Older Across All Sectors of Employment in Madagascar -- 3.2 Distribution of Individuals Aged 15 and Older Across All Sectors of Employment in Urban and Rural Areas -- 4.1 Gender Composition of the Employee Samples -- 4.2 Descriptive Statistics of the Gender Wage Gap -- 4.3 Quantile Decompositions of the Gender Wage Gap, by Country -- 4.4 Decomposition of Gender Earnings Differentials Accounting for Gender Segregation Across Firms -- 5.1 Selected Gender Indicators -- 5.2 Profile of Educational Attainment by Age Cohort, Gender, and Rural and Urban Location -- 5.3 Simulation Results: GDP Growth at Factor Cost -- 5.4 Simulation Results: Gross Enrollment Rate, Secondary -- 5.5 Simulation Results: Wage Growth for Labor with Secondary Education -- 6.1 Average Household Income and Consumption by Consumption Quintile in Guinea -- 6.2 Sectoral Impact on Male Labor and Male Labor Elasticity (Shock of 1% of Aggregate Exports)
6.3 Sectoral Impact on Female Labor and Female Labor Elasticity (Shock of 1% of Aggregate Exports) -- 6.4 Difference in Sectoral Impact on Female and Male Labor Income and Impact on Aggregate GDP (Shock of 1% of Aggregate Exports) -- 6.5 Difference in Sectoral Impact on Rural and Urban Labor Income (Shock of 1% of Aggregate Exports) -- 6.6 Difference in Sectoral Impact on Urban Unskilled and Urban Skilled Labor Income (Shock of 1% of Aggregate Exports) -- 7.1 Difference Between Sectoral Impact on Female and Male Labor Income, and Impact on Aggregate GDP (Shock of T Sh 100 million) -- 7.2 Difference Between Sectoral Impact on Workers with No Formal Education and Unfinished Secondary (Shock of T Sh 100 million) -- 7.3 Concentration of Selected Transmission Channels from Growth to Labor Income -- 7.4 Example of Paths to a Category of Labor -- 7.5 Speed of Selected Transmission Channels of Shocks from Growth to Labor Income -- 7A.1 Sketch Map for Calculation of Total Influence -- 8.1 Generalized Lorenz Curves for Total Work Time by Gender in Urban Areas in Ethiopia, 2005 -- 8.2 Generalized Lorenz Curves for Total Work Time by Gender in Rural Areas in Ethiopia, 2005 -- 10.1 Impact of Gender Variables on Consumption Patterns in the Republic of Congo, 2005 -- 11.1 Decision Making on Education by Age and Gender in Nigeria -- 11.2 Decision Making on Health by Age and Gender in Nigeria -- 11.3 Decision Making on Food by Age and Gender in Nigeria -- 11.4 Decision Making on Clothing by Age and Gender in Nigeria -- 11.5 Decision Making on Shelter by Age and Gender in Nigeria -- 11.6 Decision Making on Sale of Farm Crop by Age and Gender in Nigeria -- 11.7 Decision Making on Land Use by Age and Gender in Nigeria -- 11.8 Main Contributor of Income in the Household by Age and Gender in Nigeria -- Tables -- O.1 Countries Covered in This Volume
1.1 List of Surveys by Country and Date -- 1.2 Employment Ratio by Gender, around 2000 -- 1.3 Employment Ratio by Gender and Age Class, around 2000 -- 1.4 Gender Differences in Unemployment Rates by Age and Location, around 2000 -- 1.5 Average Incidence of Underemployment (Less Than 30 hours of Work per Week) -- 1.6 Share of Employed Men and Women in Selected Employment Status, around 2000 -- 1.7 Employment Status of the Active Population by Gender and Education Level, Regional Average, around 2000 -- 1.8 Share of Employed Individuals in Selected Employment Status by Gender and Education, Regional Average, around 2000 -- 1.9 Earnings Gap Ratio by Education Level and Gender -- 1A.1 Frequencies for Missing Data by Country-Individuals, ages 15-64 -- 2.1 Selected Labor Market Indicators, 2005 -- 2.2 Nature and Terms of Wage Employment in Total Wage Employment, 2005 -- 2.3 Unadjusted Gender Monthly Wage Gap by Age and Wage Level, 2005 -- 2.4 Levels of Education Among the Wage-Employed by Gender, 2005 -- 2.5 Lower and Upper Estimates of Private Returns to Education, 2005 -- 2A.1 Selectivity Corrected (Heckman Two-Step Method) Log Monthly Earnings Equations in Wage Employment by Gender, 2005 -- 2A.2-1 Selectivity Corrected (Heckman Two-Step Method) Log Monthly Earnings Equations in Wage Employment by Gender, 2005 (age group 15-24) -- 2A.2-2 Selectivity Corrected (Heckman Two-Step Method) Log Monthly Earnings Equations in Wage Employment by Gender, 2005 (age group 25-34) -- 2A.2-3 Selectivity Corrected (Heckman Two-Step Method) Log Monthly Earnings Equations in Wage Employment by Gender, 2005 (age group 35+) -- 2A.3 The Cotton-Neumark Decomposition of the Gender Mean Log Monthly Earnings Differentials in Wage Employment
2A.4 The Cotton-Neumark Decomposition of the Gender Mean Log Monthly Earnings Differentials in Wage Employment by Age Cohorts (15-24, 25-34, 35+)
Women's earnings are a fraction of male's earnings in several African countries. It is tempting to conclude that this wage gap is a sign of discrimination against women in the labor market. Yet this book uses new datasets to show that the gap is not simply the result of discrimination in the labor markets, but rather the result of multiple factors, including access to education and credit, cultural values and household duties, and, above all, labor market conditions. It shows that gender disparities grow when economies are not functioning well and labor markets are tiny. More than the effect of discrimination, it seems that job rationing causes those with better human capital and those with more power in the household-usually the men-to take the few jobs that are available. It is hardly surprising, then, that in a region where only a fraction of the labor force finds jobs in the formal sector, gender disparities in earnings are so high. The book further documents that firm-level and sector characteristics are additional powerful factors in explaining the gender disparities in the labor market.As the causes are not simple, neither are the solutions; multifaceted strategies are needed. By providing environments that support economic growth and, more importantly, job creation, as well as by promoting equal access for women to education and rethinking the attitudes that limit what women may achieve, governments in the region will substantially improve the well-being of all their peoples.Gender Disparities in Africa's Labor Market helps to fill the knowledge gap and identify the links between gender disparities and poverty reduction. The work was implemented in collaboration with a range of poverty and labor market studies to maximize its usefulness for policy dialogue in specific countries.This book will be of interest to policy makers, students,
academics, gender experts, and all those interested in gender issues and development
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Arbache, Jorge Saba Gender Disparities in Africa's Labor Market Herndon : World Bank Publications,c2010 9780821380666
Subject Sex discrimination in employment -- Africa.;Sexual division of labor -- Africa.;Labor market -- Africa
Electronic books
Alt Author Kolev, Alexandre
Filipiak, Ewa
Wodon, Quentin
World Bank,
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