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020    |z9789289322294 
035    (MiAaPQ)EBC3383010 
035    (Au-PeEL)EBL3383010 
035    (CaPaEBR)ebr10570021 
035    (OCoLC)923313119 
040    MiAaPQ|beng|erda|epn|cMiAaPQ|dMiAaPQ 
100 1  ministerrådet, Nordiska 
245 10 Greening the economy :|bNordic experiences and challenges 
264  1 Copenhagen :|bNordiska ministerrådets förlag,|c2011 
264  4 |c©2011 
300    1 online resource (173 pages) 
336    text|btxt|2rdacontent 
337    computer|bc|2rdamedia 
338    online resource|bcr|2rdacarrier 
505 0  Intro -- Content -- Preface -- Summary -- Some general 
       conclusions and recommendations -- Special recommendations
       for the Nordic and other industrialized countries -- 
       Special challenges and recommendations for emerging 
       economies and/or developing countries -- 1.  Background: 
       financial crisis and "Green Growth" -- 1.1  Promoting 
       Green Growth -- 1.2  Categories of environmental policy 
       instruments -- 1.3  Report overview -- 2.  A brief history
       of Nordic environmental policy development -- 2.1  1970-
       80s: command and control era -- 2.1.1  Regulations of 
       large industrial sources -- 2.1.2  Some few economic 
       instruments were used -- 2.1.3  Fish resources management 
       in Iceland was an early attempt at using economic 
       instruments in resource management -- 2.1.4  Conservation 
       of nature -- 2.1.5  Spatial planning -- 2.1.6  
       Environmental Impact Assessments -- 2.2  1980s: 
       environmental policies enter new sectors and areas -- 
       2.2.1  International cooperation becomes important -- 
       2.2.2  Waste policy emerges -- 2.2.3  Release of hazardous
       chemicals from products and other sources were addressed -
       - 2.2.4  Emissions from transportation and agriculture 
       were also addressed -- 2.2.5  Environmental labelling -- 
       2.3  1990s: climate change policy emerges -- 2.3.1  "Think
       global, act local" -- 2.3.2  Nordic countries also 
       promoters of coordinated actions -- 2.3.3  Economic 
       instruments most important GHG policy instrument -- 2.4  
       2000s: new economic instruments come into use -- 2.4.1  
       The Swedish NOx charge -- 2.4.2  The Norwegian NOx charge 
       -- 2.4.3  Swedish congestion taxes -- 2.4.4  
       Differentiated car purchase tax -- 2.4.5  Green 
       Certificates -- 2.4.6  Environmental Information -- 2.4.7 
       Green Public Procurement (GPP) -- 2.4.8  Payment for 
       ecosystem services (PES) -- 3.  Assessment of Nordic 
       environmental policy experiences 
505 8  3.1  The command and control policy have been fairly 
       (cost) effective -- 3.2 Innovative and increased use of 
       economic instruments -- 3.2.1  Economic instruments have 
       become supplemental to command and control -- 3.2.2  The 
       transportation sector faces the most comprehensive policy 
       instruments -- 3.2.3  Water pollution mostly regulated 
       through command and control measures -- 3.2.4  Subsidies 
       are sometimes justified, but have negative side-effects --
       3.2.5  Green certificates is a new way of imposing 
       subsidies -- 3.2.6  Many chemicals best curbed through 
       direct regulations, but also economic instruments could 
       have been used more widely -- 3.2.7  The Swedish NOx 
       charge is a good example of tax revenue recycling -- 3.2.8
       Payment for ecosystem services could be improved and 
       expanded -- 3.3  Additional policy instruments are often 
       necessary…. -- 3.3.1  Energy efficiency could be promoted
       through different instruments -- 3.3.2  Negotiated 
       agreements have contributed to environmental improvements 
       -- 3.3.3  Information could increase the efficiency of 
       policy instruments -- 3.3.4  Green Public Procurement 
       (GPP) and eco-labelling could make a difference -- 3.4  
       …but sometimes they are not -- 3.4.1  Various waste taxes
       and other instruments are used in all countries, and they 
       seem overlapping -- 3.4.2  Renewable energy is supported -
       but this does not seem necessary for environmental reasons
       -- 3.5  EU plays a greater role in policy development over
       the years -- 3.6  Elements of a green tax reform -- 3.6.1 
       Green tax reforms not likely to give double dividends -- 
       3.6.2  Green tax reforms in most Nordic countries -- 3.6.3
       Denmark applies the highest number of instruments -- 3.7  
       High economic growth and economic instruments hand in hand
       -- 3.7.1  The Nordic countries have had high GDP growth 
       and large emission reductions 
505 8  3.7.2  Economic instruments could yield a greener economic
       growth compared to a command and control approach -- 3.8  
       Relative energy consumption and intensities not much 
       changed -- 3.8.1  Energy consumption per capita fairly 
       constant over time -- 3.8.2  Some decoupling between 
       energy use and GDP growth -- 3.9  The policy instruments 
       have had impacts on pollution -- 3.9.1  Economic growth 
       and emissions to air have been decoupled -- 3.9.2  Energy/
       CO2-related taxes and subsidies have had impacts on GHG 
       emissions -- 3.9.3  Acidification is also reduced -- 3.9.4
       Waste taxation has reduced waste growth -- 3.10   No 
       significant negative impacts on income distribution -- 
       3.11   No evidence of pollution havens -- 3.12   No large 
       impacts on competitive positions either -- 3.13   Carbon 
       leakage a concern, but can be dealt with -- 4.  The Nordic
       model -- 4.1.1  Mutual trust and link between labour 
       market and welfare benefits characterize the Nordic model 
       -- 4.1.2  The Nordic model is an asset for the Nordic 
       countries -- 4.1.3  The Nordic model has likely affected 
       the environmental policy -- 4.1.4  Some lessons from the 
       Nordic model could be learned -- 5.  Innovation in green 
       technologies - some cases -- 5.1  Differences in energy 
       production and use are important to understand policies --
       5.2  Environmental policies and technology development -- 
       5.2.1  Innovation takes place in the intersection of many 
       policies -- 5.2.2  Nordic leadership in green technologies
       -- 5.3  Cases: green innovations and transformations -- 
       5.3.1  Energy transformation and development in Denmark 
       through a policy mix -- 5.3.2  Energy efficient mobile 
       phone chargers not spurred by environmental policy -- 
       5.3.3  Energy and environmental innovations in Nordic 
       building sector through various regulations 
505 8  5.3.4  Environmental improvements in pulp and paper 
       industry through regulations and customer pressure -- 
       5.3.5  Energy management on marine vessels spurred by fuel
       saving -- 5.3.6  CO2 emission reductions in upstream 
       petroleum production through CO2 taxation -- 5.3.7  
       Reduced phosphorous emissions from agriculture spurred by 
       taxation -- 5.3.8  Biofuels in transport promoted through 
       a mix of instruments -- 5.3.9  Environmentally friendly 
       ship engines spurred by a mix of instruments -- 5.3.10  
       Cleaning technologies developed in fertilizer production 
       spurred by NOx regulations and GHG emission reduction 
       agreement -- 6.  Lessons and recommendations -- 6.1  Some 
       general lessons and recommendations -- 6.1.1  Use of 
       economic instruments and high economic growt go hand in 
       hand -- 6.1.2  Economic instruments could enhance and 
       promote a greener growth -- 6.1.3  Pricing pollution 
       should be a key policy element which could yield broader 
       gains -- 6.1.4  Show the benefits from using economic 
       instruments -- 6.1.5  Carefully consider the need for 
       supplementary policy instruments -- 6.1.6  Some 
       supplementary instruments could be needed -- 6.1.7  The 
       need for subsidies should be critically assessed -- 6.1.8 
       Economic instruments useful also when technology 
       development is not an issue -- 6.1.9  Consider new ways of
       redistributing or recycling the revenue -- 6.1.10  Use 
       economic instruments also to provide ecosystem services 
       and halt biodiversity loss -- 6.2  Special challenges and 
       recommendations for the Nordic and other industrialized 
       countries -- 6.2.1  Global cooperation based on national 
       responsibility crucial to reduce GHG emissions -- 6.2.2  
       Biodiversity loss should be handled locally -- 6.2.3  
       Curbing use of hazardous substances needs international 
       cooperation -- 6.2.4  Local car traffic needs special 
       attention 
505 8  6.2.5  Make car taxation and costs more transparent to 
       consumers -- 6.2.6  Remove tax exemptions -- 6.3  Special 
       challenges and recommendations for emerging economies and/
       or developing countries -- 6.3.1  Assess the costs of 
       environmental degradation in the country -- 6.3.2  Remove 
       environmental harmful subsidies -- 6.3.3  Consider 
       imposing local resource management and fuel/emission 
       taxation -- References -- Sammendrag -- Resymé -- Bakgrunn
       : Finanskrise og grønn vekst -- Problemstilling -- Noen 
       generelle konklusjoner og anbefalinger -- Økonomisk vekst 
       og vekst i utslippene til luft er dekoblet -- Økonomiske 
       virkemidler kan bidra til en grønnere vekst -- Prising av 
       forurensning bør være et nøkkelelement i miljøpolitikken 
       som også kan gi bredere gevinster -- Vis gevinstene ved å 
       benyttes økonomiske virkemidler -- Nøye vurdere behovet 
       for supplerende virkemidler -- Noen supplerende 
       virkemidler kan imidlertid være nødvendige -- Behovet for 
       subsidier bør vurderes kritisk -- Økonomiske virkemidler 
       er nyttige også når teknologiutvikling ikke er tema -- 
       Vurdér nye måter å omfordele eller øremerke 
       avgiftsinntektene på -- Bruk økonomiske virkemidler også 
       til å fremme økosystemtjenester og stoppe tap av 
       biodiversitet -- Spesielle anbefalinger for de nordiske 
       land og andre industriland -- Globalt samarbeid basert på 
       nasjonalt ansvar avgjørende for å redusere utslippene av 
       drivhusgasser -- Tap av biodiversitet bør håndteres lokalt
       -- Begrensning av miljøskadelige stoffer krever 
       internasjonalt samarbeid -- Lokal veitrafikk trenger 
       spesiell oppmerksomhet -- Gjør skattlegging av kjøretøy og
       kostnader mer transparente for forbrukerne -- Fjern alle 
       avgiftsunntak -- Spesielle anbefalinger for fremvoksende 
       økonomier og /eller utviklingsland -- Estimér 
       miljøkostnadene i landet -- Fjern miljøskadelige subsidier
505 8  Vurdér innføring av lokal ressursforvaltning og avgifter 
       på fossile brensler/utslipp 
588    Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other
       sources 
590    Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest 
       Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access 
       may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated 
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650  0 SOCIAL SCIENCE / General. -- bisacsh 
655  4 Electronic books 
776 08 |iPrint version:|aministerrådet, Nordiska|tGreening the 
       economy : Nordic experiences and challenges|dCopenhagen : 
       Nordiska ministerrådets förlag,c2011|z9789289322294 
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