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Author ministerrådet, Nordiska
Title Greening the economy : Nordic experiences and challenges
Imprint Copenhagen : Nordiska ministerrådets förlag, 2011
Descript 1 online resource (173 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Intro -- Content -- Preface -- Summary -- Some general conclusions and recommendations -- Special recommendations for the Nordic and other industrialized countries -- Special challenges and recommendations for emerging economies and/or developing countries -- 1. Background: financial crisis and "Green Growth" -- 1.1 Promoting Green Growth -- 1.2 Categories of environmental policy instruments -- 1.3 Report overview -- 2. A brief history of Nordic environmental policy development -- 2.1 1970-80s: command and control era -- 2.1.1 Regulations of large industrial sources -- 2.1.2 Some few economic instruments were used -- 2.1.3 Fish resources management in Iceland was an early attempt at using economic instruments in resource management -- 2.1.4 Conservation of nature -- 2.1.5 Spatial planning -- 2.1.6 Environmental Impact Assessments -- 2.2 1980s: environmental policies enter new sectors and areas -- 2.2.1 International cooperation becomes important -- 2.2.2 Waste policy emerges -- 2.2.3 Release of hazardous chemicals from products and other sources were addressed -- 2.2.4 Emissions from transportation and agriculture were also addressed -- 2.2.5 Environmental labelling -- 2.3 1990s: climate change policy emerges -- 2.3.1 "Think global, act local" -- 2.3.2 Nordic countries also promoters of coordinated actions -- 2.3.3 Economic instruments most important GHG policy instrument -- 2.4 2000s: new economic instruments come into use -- 2.4.1 The Swedish NOx charge -- 2.4.2 The Norwegian NOx charge -- 2.4.3 Swedish congestion taxes -- 2.4.4 Differentiated car purchase tax -- 2.4.5 Green Certificates -- 2.4.6 Environmental Information -- 2.4.7 Green Public Procurement (GPP) -- 2.4.8 Payment for ecosystem services (PES) -- 3. Assessment of Nordic environmental policy experiences
3.1 The command and control policy have been fairly (cost) effective -- 3.2 Innovative and increased use of economic instruments -- 3.2.1 Economic instruments have become supplemental to command and control -- 3.2.2 The transportation sector faces the most comprehensive policy instruments -- 3.2.3 Water pollution mostly regulated through command and control measures -- 3.2.4 Subsidies are sometimes justified, but have negative side-effects -- 3.2.5 Green certificates is a new way of imposing subsidies -- 3.2.6 Many chemicals best curbed through direct regulations, but also economic instruments could have been used more widely -- 3.2.7 The Swedish NOx charge is a good example of tax revenue recycling -- 3.2.8 Payment for ecosystem services could be improved and expanded -- 3.3 Additional policy instruments are often necessary…. -- 3.3.1 Energy efficiency could be promoted through different instruments -- 3.3.2 Negotiated agreements have contributed to environmental improvements -- 3.3.3 Information could increase the efficiency of policy instruments -- 3.3.4 Green Public Procurement (GPP) and eco-labelling could make a difference -- 3.4 …but sometimes they are not -- 3.4.1 Various waste taxes and other instruments are used in all countries, and they seem overlapping -- 3.4.2 Renewable energy is supported - but this does not seem necessary for environmental reasons -- 3.5 EU plays a greater role in policy development over the years -- 3.6 Elements of a green tax reform -- 3.6.1 Green tax reforms not likely to give double dividends -- 3.6.2 Green tax reforms in most Nordic countries -- 3.6.3 Denmark applies the highest number of instruments -- 3.7 High economic growth and economic instruments hand in hand -- 3.7.1 The Nordic countries have had high GDP growth and large emission reductions
3.7.2 Economic instruments could yield a greener economic growth compared to a command and control approach -- 3.8 Relative energy consumption and intensities not much changed -- 3.8.1 Energy consumption per capita fairly constant over time -- 3.8.2 Some decoupling between energy use and GDP growth -- 3.9 The policy instruments have had impacts on pollution -- 3.9.1 Economic growth and emissions to air have been decoupled -- 3.9.2 Energy/ CO2-related taxes and subsidies have had impacts on GHG emissions -- 3.9.3 Acidification is also reduced -- 3.9.4 Waste taxation has reduced waste growth -- 3.10 No significant negative impacts on income distribution -- 3.11 No evidence of pollution havens -- 3.12 No large impacts on competitive positions either -- 3.13 Carbon leakage a concern, but can be dealt with -- 4. The Nordic model -- 4.1.1 Mutual trust and link between labour market and welfare benefits characterize the Nordic model -- 4.1.2 The Nordic model is an asset for the Nordic countries -- 4.1.3 The Nordic model has likely affected the environmental policy -- 4.1.4 Some lessons from the Nordic model could be learned -- 5. Innovation in green technologies - some cases -- 5.1 Differences in energy production and use are important to understand policies -- 5.2 Environmental policies and technology development -- 5.2.1 Innovation takes place in the intersection of many policies -- 5.2.2 Nordic leadership in green technologies -- 5.3 Cases: green innovations and transformations -- 5.3.1 Energy transformation and development in Denmark through a policy mix -- 5.3.2 Energy efficient mobile phone chargers not spurred by environmental policy -- 5.3.3 Energy and environmental innovations in Nordic building sector through various regulations
5.3.4 Environmental improvements in pulp and paper industry through regulations and customer pressure -- 5.3.5 Energy management on marine vessels spurred by fuel saving -- 5.3.6 CO2 emission reductions in upstream petroleum production through CO2 taxation -- 5.3.7 Reduced phosphorous emissions from agriculture spurred by taxation -- 5.3.8 Biofuels in transport promoted through a mix of instruments -- 5.3.9 Environmentally friendly ship engines spurred by a mix of instruments -- 5.3.10 Cleaning technologies developed in fertilizer production spurred by NOx regulations and GHG emission reduction agreement -- 6. Lessons and recommendations -- 6.1 Some general lessons and recommendations -- 6.1.1 Use of economic instruments and high economic growt go hand in hand -- 6.1.2 Economic instruments could enhance and promote a greener growth -- 6.1.3 Pricing pollution should be a key policy element which could yield broader gains -- 6.1.4 Show the benefits from using economic instruments -- 6.1.5 Carefully consider the need for supplementary policy instruments -- 6.1.6 Some supplementary instruments could be needed -- 6.1.7 The need for subsidies should be critically assessed -- 6.1.8 Economic instruments useful also when technology development is not an issue -- 6.1.9 Consider new ways of redistributing or recycling the revenue -- 6.1.10 Use economic instruments also to provide ecosystem services and halt biodiversity loss -- 6.2 Special challenges and recommendations for the Nordic and other industrialized countries -- 6.2.1 Global cooperation based on national responsibility crucial to reduce GHG emissions -- 6.2.2 Biodiversity loss should be handled locally -- 6.2.3 Curbing use of hazardous substances needs international cooperation -- 6.2.4 Local car traffic needs special attention
6.2.5 Make car taxation and costs more transparent to consumers -- 6.2.6 Remove tax exemptions -- 6.3 Special challenges and recommendations for emerging economies and/or developing countries -- 6.3.1 Assess the costs of environmental degradation in the country -- 6.3.2 Remove environmental harmful subsidies -- 6.3.3 Consider imposing local resource management and fuel/emission taxation -- References -- Sammendrag -- Resymé -- Bakgrunn: Finanskrise og grønn vekst -- Problemstilling -- Noen generelle konklusjoner og anbefalinger -- Økonomisk vekst og vekst i utslippene til luft er dekoblet -- Økonomiske virkemidler kan bidra til en grønnere vekst -- Prising av forurensning bør være et nøkkelelement i miljøpolitikken som også kan gi bredere gevinster -- Vis gevinstene ved å benyttes økonomiske virkemidler -- Nøye vurdere behovet for supplerende virkemidler -- Noen supplerende virkemidler kan imidlertid være nødvendige -- Behovet for subsidier bør vurderes kritisk -- Økonomiske virkemidler er nyttige også når teknologiutvikling ikke er tema -- Vurdér nye måter å omfordele eller øremerke avgiftsinntektene på -- Bruk økonomiske virkemidler også til å fremme økosystemtjenester og stoppe tap av biodiversitet -- Spesielle anbefalinger for de nordiske land og andre industriland -- Globalt samarbeid basert på nasjonalt ansvar avgjørende for å redusere utslippene av drivhusgasser -- Tap av biodiversitet bør håndteres lokalt -- Begrensning av miljøskadelige stoffer krever internasjonalt samarbeid -- Lokal veitrafikk trenger spesiell oppmerksomhet -- Gjør skattlegging av kjøretøy og kostnader mer transparente for forbrukerne -- Fjern alle avgiftsunntak -- Spesielle anbefalinger for fremvoksende økonomier og /eller utviklingsland -- Estimér miljøkostnadene i landet -- Fjern miljøskadelige subsidier
Vurdér innføring av lokal ressursforvaltning og avgifter på fossile brensler/utslipp
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: ministerrådet, Nordiska Greening the economy : Nordic experiences and challenges Copenhagen : Nordiska ministerrådets förlag,c2011 9789289322294
Subject SOCIAL SCIENCE / General. -- bisacsh
Electronic books
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