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Author Torenbeek, Egbert
Title Advanced Aircraft Design : Conceptual Design, Analysis andOptimization of Subsonic Civil Airplanes
Imprint New York : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2013
©2013
book jacket
Edition 1st ed
Descript 1 online resource (438 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Series Aerospace Ser
Aerospace Ser
Note Intro -- ADVANCED AIRCRAFT DESIGN -- Contents -- Foreword -- Series Preface -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- 1 Design of theWell-Tempered Aircraft -- 1.1 How Aircraft Design Developed -- 1.1.1 Evolution of Jetliners and Executive Aircraft -- 1.1.2 A Framework for Advanced Design -- 1.1.3 Analytical Design Optimization -- 1.1.4 Computational Design Environment -- 1.2 Concept Finding -- 1.2.1 Advanced Design -- 1.2.2 Pre-conceptual Studies -- 1.3 Product Development -- 1.3.1 Concept Definition -- 1.3.2 Preliminary Design -- 1.3.3 Detail Design -- 1.4 Baseline Design in a Nutshell -- 1.4.1 Baseline Sizing -- 1.4.2 Power Plant -- 1.4.3 Weight and Balance -- 1.4.4 Structure -- 1.4.5 Performance Analysis -- 1.4.6 Closing the Loop -- 1.5 Automated Design Synthesis -- 1.5.1 Computational Systems Requirements -- 1.5.2 Examples -- 1.5.3 Parametric Surveys -- 1.6 Technology Assessment -- 1.7 Structure of the Optimization Problem -- 1.7.1 Analysis Versus Synthesis -- 1.7.2 Problem Classification -- Bibliography -- 2 Early Conceptual Design -- 2.1 Scenario and Requirements -- 2.1.1 What Drives a Design? -- 2.1.2 Civil Airplane Categories -- 2.1.3 Top Level Requirements -- 2.2 Weight Terminology and Prediction -- 2.2.1 Method Classification -- 2.2.2 Basic Weight Components -- 2.2.3 Weight Limits -- 2.2.4 Transport Capability -- 2.3 The Unity Equation -- 2.3.1 Mission Fuel -- 2.3.2 Empty Weight -- 2.3.3 Design Weights -- 2.4 Range Parameter -- 2.4.1 Aerodynamic Efficiency -- 2.4.2 Specific Fuel Consumption and Overall Efficiency -- 2.4.3 Best Cruise Speed -- 2.5 Environmental Issues -- 2.5.1 Energy and Payload Fuel Efficiency -- 2.5.2 'Greener by Design' -- Bibliography -- 3 Propulsion and Engine Technology -- 3.1 Propulsion Leading the Way -- 3.2 Basic Concepts of Jet Propulsion -- 3.2.1 Turbojet Thrust -- 3.2.2 Turbofan Thrust
3.2.3 Specific Fuel Consumption -- 3.2.4 Overall Efficiency -- 3.2.5 Thermal and Propulsive Efficiency -- 3.2.6 Generalized Performance -- 3.2.7 Mach Number and Altitude Effects -- 3.3 Turboprop Engines -- 3.3.1 Power and Specific Fuel Consumption -- 3.3.2 Generalized Performance -- 3.3.3 High Speed Propellers -- 3.4 Turbofan Engine Layout -- 3.4.1 Bypass Ratio Trends -- 3.4.2 Rise and Fall of the Propfan -- 3.4.3 Rebirth of the Open Rotor? -- 3.5 Power Plant Selection -- 3.5.1 Power Plant Location -- 3.5.2 Alternative Fuels -- 3.5.3 Aircraft Noise -- Bibliography -- 4 Aerodynamic Drag and Its Reduction -- 4.1 Basic Concepts -- 4.1.1 Lift, Drag and Aerodynamic Efficiency -- 4.1.2 Drag Breakdown and Definitions -- 4.2 Decomposition Schemes and Terminology -- 4.2.1 Pressure and Friction Drag -- 4.2.2 Viscous Drag -- 4.2.3 Vortex Drag -- 4.2.4 Wave Drag -- 4.3 Subsonic Parasite and Induced Drag -- 4.3.1 Parasite Drag -- 4.3.2 Monoplane Induced Drag -- 4.3.3 Biplane Induced Drag -- 4.3.4 Multiplane and Boxplane Induced Drag -- 4.4 Drag Polar Representations -- 4.4.1 Two-term Approximation -- 4.4.2 Three-term Approximation -- 4.4.3 Reynolds Number Effects -- 4.4.4 Compressibility Correction -- 4.5 Drag Prediction -- 4.5.1 Interference Drag -- 4.5.2 Roughness and Excrescences -- 4.5.3 Corrections Dependent on Operation -- 4.5.4 Estimation of Maximum Subsonic L/D -- 4.5.5 Low-Speed Configuration -- 4.6 Viscous Drag Reduction -- 4.6.1 Wetted Area -- 4.6.2 Turbulent Friction Drag -- 4.6.3 Natural Laminar Flow -- 4.6.4 Laminar Flow Control -- 4.6.5 Hybrid Laminar Flow Control -- 4.6.6 Gains, Challenges and Barriers of LFC -- 4.7 Induced Drag Reduction -- 4.7.1 Wing Span -- 4.7.2 Spanwise Camber -- 4.7.3 Non-planar Wing Systems -- Bibliography -- 5 From Tube and Wing to Flying Wing -- 5.1 The Case for Flying Wings -- 5.1.1 Northrop's All-Wing Aircraft
5.1.2 Flying Wing Controversy -- 5.1.3 Whither All-Wing Airliners? -- 5.1.4 Fundamental Issues -- 5.2 Allocation of Useful Volume -- 5.2.1 Integration of the Useful Load -- 5.2.2 Study Ground Rules -- 5.2.3 Volume Ratio -- 5.2.4 Zero-Lift Drag -- 5.2.5 Generalized Aerodynamic Efficiency -- 5.2.6 Partial Optima -- 5.3 Survey of Aerodynamic Efficiency -- 5.3.1 Altitude Variation -- 5.3.2 Aspect Ratio and Span -- 5.3.3 Engine-Airframe Matching -- 5.4 Survey of the Parameter ML/D -- 5.4.1 Optimum Flight Conditions -- 5.4.2 The Drag Parameter -- 5.5 Integrated Configurations Compared -- 5.5.1 Conventional Baseline -- 5.5.2 Is a Wing Alone Sufficient? -- 5.5.3 Blended Wing Body -- 5.5.4 Hybrid Flying Wing -- 5.5.5 Span Loader -- 5.6 Flying Wing Design -- 5.6.1 Hang-Ups or Showstopper? -- 5.6.2 Structural Design and Weight -- 5.6.3 The Flying Wing: Will It Fly? -- Bibliography -- 6 Clean Sheet Design -- 6.1 Dominant and Radical Configurations -- 6.1.1 Established Configurations -- 6.1.2 New Paradigms -- 6.2 Morphology of Shapes -- 6.2.1 Classification -- 6.2.2 Lifting Systems -- 6.2.3 Plan View Classification -- 6.2.4 Strut-Braced Wings -- 6.2.5 Propulsion and Concept Integration -- 6.3 Wing and Tail Configurations -- 6.3.1 Aerodynamic Limits -- 6.3.2 The Balanced Design -- 6.3.3 Evaluation -- 6.3.4 Relaxed Inherent Stability -- 6.4 Aircraft Featuring a Foreplane -- 6.4.1 Canard Configuration -- 6.4.2 Three-Surface Aircraft -- 6.5 Non-Planar Lifting Systems -- 6.5.1 Transonic Boxplane -- 6.5.2 C-Wing -- 6.6 Joined Wing Aircraft -- 6.6.1 Structural Principles and Weight -- 6.6.2 Aerodynamic Aspects -- 6.6.3 Stability and Control -- 6.6.4 Design Integration -- 6.7 Twin-Fuselage Aircraft -- 6.7.1 Design Integration -- 6.8 Hydrogen-Fuelled Commercial Transports -- 6.8.1 Properties of LH2 -- 6.8.2 Fuel System -- 6.8.3 Handling Safety, Economics and Logistics
6.9 Promising Concepts -- Bibliography -- 7 Aircraft Design Optimization -- 7.1 The Perfect Design: An Illusion? -- 7.2 Elements of Optimization -- 7.2.1 Design Parameters -- 7.2.2 Optimal Control and Discrete-Variable Optimization -- 7.2.3 Basic Terminology -- 7.2.4 Single-Objective Optimization -- 7.2.5 Unconstrained Optimizer -- 7.2.6 Constrained Optimizer -- 7.3 Analytical or Numerical Optimization? -- 7.3.1 Analytical Approach -- 7.3.2 Multivariate Optimization -- 7.3.3 Unconstrained Optimization -- 7.3.4 Constrained Optimization -- 7.3.5 Response Surface Approximation -- 7.3.6 Global Models -- 7.4 Large Optimization Problems -- 7.4.1 Concept Sizing and Evaluation -- 7.4.2 Multidisciplinary Optimization -- 7.4.3 System Decomposition -- 7.4.4 Multilevel Optimization -- 7.4.5 Multi-Objective Optimization -- 7.5 Practical Optimization in Conceptual Design -- 7.5.1 Arguments of the Sceptic -- 7.5.2 Problem Structure -- 7.5.3 Selecting Selection Variables -- 7.5.4 Design Sensitivity -- 7.5.5 The Objective Function -- Bibliography -- 8 Theory of OptimumWeight -- 8.1 Weight Engineering: Core of Aircraft Design -- 8.1.1 Prediction Methods -- 8.1.2 Use of Statistics -- 8.2 Design Sensitivity -- 8.2.1 Problem Structure -- 8.2.2 Selection Variables -- 8.3 Jet Transport Empty Weight -- 8.3.1 Weight Breakdown -- 8.3.2 Wing Structure (Item 10) -- 8.3.3 Fuselage Structure (Item 11) -- 8.3.4 Empennage Structure (Items 12 and 13) -- 8.3.5 Landing Gear Structure (Item 14) -- 8.3.6 Power Plant and Engine Pylons (Items 2 and 15) -- 8.3.7 Systems, Furnishings and Operational Items (Items 3, 4 and 5) -- 8.3.8 Operating Empty Weight: Example -- 8.4 Design Sensitivity of Airframe Drag -- 8.4.1 Drag Decomposition -- 8.4.2 Aerodynamic Efficiency -- 8.5 Thrust, Power Plant and Fuel Weight -- 8.5.1 Installed Thrust and Power Plant Weight -- 8.5.2 Mission Fuel
8.5.3 Propulsion Weight Penalty -- 8.5.4 Wing and Propulsion Weight Fraction -- 8.5.5 Optimum Weight Fractions Compared -- 8.6 Take-Off Weight, Thrust and Fuel Efficiency -- 8.6.1 Maximum Take-Off Weight -- 8.6.2 Installed Thrust and Fuel Energy Efficiency -- 8.6.3 Unconstrained Optima Compared -- 8.6.4 Range for Given MTOW -- 8.6.5 Extended Range Version -- 8.7 Summary and Reflection -- 8.7.1 Which Figure of Merit? -- 8.7.2 Conclusion -- 8.7.3 Accuracy -- Bibliography -- 9 Matching Engines and Airframe -- 9.1 Requirements and Constraints -- 9.2 Cruise-Sized Engines -- 9.2.1 Installed Take-Off Thrust -- 9.2.2 The Thumbprint -- 9.3 Low Speed Requirements -- 9.3.1 Stalling Speed -- 9.3.2 Take-Off Climb -- 9.3.3 Approach and Landing Climb -- 9.3.4 Second Segment Climb Gradient -- 9.4 Schematic Take-Off Analysis -- 9.4.1 Definitions of Take-Off Field Length -- 9.4.2 Take-Off Run -- 9.4.3 Airborne Distance -- 9.4.4 Take-Off Distance -- 9.4.5 Generalized Thrust and Span Loading Constraint -- 9.4.6 Minimum Thrust for Given TOFL -- 9.5 Approach and Landing -- 9.5.1 Landing Distance Analysis -- 9.5.2 Approach Speed and Wing Loading -- 9.6 Engine Selection and Installation -- 9.6.1 Identifying the Best Match -- 9.6.2 Initial Engine Assessment -- 9.6.3 Engine Selection -- Bibliography -- 10 Elements of Aerodynamic Wing Design -- 10.1 Introduction -- 10.1.1 Problem Structure -- 10.1.2 Relation to Engine Selection -- 10.2 Planform Geometry -- 10.2.1 Wing Area and Design Lift Coefficient -- 10.2.2 Span and Aspect Ratio -- 10.3 Design Sensitivity Information -- 10.3.1 Aerodynamic Efficiency -- 10.3.2 Propulsion Weight Contribution -- 10.3.3 Wing and Tail Structure Weight -- 10.3.4 Wing Penalty Function and MTOW -- 10.4 Subsonic Aircraft Wing -- 10.4.1 Problem Structure -- 10.4.2 Unconstrained Optima -- 10.4.3 Minimum Propulsion Weight Penalty -- 10.4.4 Accuracy
10.5 Constrained Optima
Although the overall appearance of modern airliners has not changed a lot since the introduction of jetliners in the 1950s, their safety, efficiency and environmental friendliness have improved considerably. Main contributors to this have been gas turbine engine technology, advanced materials, computational aerodynamics, advanced structural analysis and on-board systems. Since aircraft design became a highly multidisciplinary activity, the development of multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) has become a popular new discipline. Despite this, the application of MDO during the conceptual design phase is not yet widespread. Advanced Aircraft Design: Conceptual Design, Analysis and Optimization of Subsonic Civil Airplanes presents a quasi-analytical optimization approach based on a concise set of sizing equations. Objectives are aerodynamic efficiency, mission fuel, empty weight and maximum takeoff weight. Independent design variables studied include design cruise altitude, wing area and span and thrust or power loading. Principal  features of integrated concepts such as the blended wing and body and highly non-planar wings are also covered.  The quasi-analytical approach enables designers to compare the results of high-fidelity MDO optimization with lower-fidelity methods which need far less computational effort. Another advantage to this approach is that it can provide answers to "what if" questions rapidly and with little computational cost. Key features: Presents a new fundamental vision on conceptual airplane design optimization Provides an overview of advanced technologies for propulsion and reducing aerodynamic drag Offers insight into the derivation of design sensitivity information Emphasizes design based on first principles Considers pros and cons  of innovative configurations Reconsiders optimum cruise performance at transonic Mach numbers
Advanced Aircraft Design: Conceptual Design, Analysis and Optimization of Subsonic Civil Airplanes advances understanding of the initial optimization of civil airplanes and is a must-have reference for aerospace engineering students, applied researchers, aircraft design engineers and analysts
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Torenbeek, Egbert Advanced Aircraft Design : Conceptual Design, Analysis andOptimization of Subsonic Civil Airplanes New York : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated,c2013 9781118568101
Subject Transport planes -- Design and construction.;Jet planes -- Design and construction.;Airplanes -- Performance
Electronic books
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