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050  4 HE282.A2 -- G87 2011eb 
082 0  388.096 
100 1  Gwilliam, Ken 
245 10 Africa's Transport Infrastructure :|bMainstreaming 
       Maintenance and Management 
264  1 Herndon :|bWorld Bank Publications,|c2011 
264  4 |c©2011 
300    1 online resource (529 pages) 
336    text|btxt|2rdacontent 
337    computer|bc|2rdamedia 
338    online resource|bcr|2rdacarrier 
490 1  Directions in Development 
505 0  Intro -- Half Title Page -- Title Page -- Copyright -- 
       Contents -- About the AICD -- Series Foreword -- About the
       Authors -- Acknowledgments -- Abbreviations -- Chapter 1 
       The Legacy of History -- Political History: Colonialism 
       and Independence -- A Consequence of History: A Distorted 
       Transport Sector -- The Outcome: High Costs, Poor Service,
       and Reduced Trade -- Country Diversity and Uneven Economic
       Performance -- A New-Millennium Renaissance -- Notes -- 
       References -- Chapter 2 Roads: The Burden of Maintenance -
       - The Road Network -- Road Infrastructure Performance -- 
       Institutions: Ongoing Reforms -- Road Spending: A Problem 
       of Execution -- Freight Transport: Too Expensive -- The 
       Way Forward -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 3 Railways: 
       Not Pulling Their Weight -- Africa's Rail History: Opening
       Up the Continent -- A Sparse and Disconnected Network -- 
       Investment and Maintenance -- The Market -- Freight 
       Tariffs: Increasingly Competitive -- Why Are Railways 
       Uncompetitive? -- Institutional Arrangements -- 
       Operational Performance -- Financial Performance -- The 
       Way Forward -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 4 Airports 
       and Air Transport: Policies for Growth -- Airport 
       Infrastructure -- Operations -- The Way Forward -- Notes -
       - References -- Chapter 5 Ports and Shipping: Moving 
       toward Modern Management Structures -- Coping with Rapidly
       Changing Trade Patterns -- The Institutional and 
       Regulatory Framework -- Infrastructure Development -- 
       Performance, Cost, and Quality -- The Way Forward -- Notes
       -- References -- Chapter 6 Urban Transport: Struggling 
       with Growth -- Infrastructure: Roads -- Infrastructure: 
       Rails -- Institutions -- Services -- Fares -- Financing 
       and Subsidies -- Regulation -- The Way Forward -- Notes --
       References -- Chapter 7 Spending to Improve Connectivity -
       - The Expenditure Model in Brief -- A Detailed Look at the
       Model's Inputs 
505 8  Applying the Model -- Outputs of the Model -- Insights 
       from the Connectivity Analysis -- Notes -- References -- 
       Chapter 8 Financing: Filling the Gaps -- Expenditures -- 
       What Can Be Done about the Shortfalls? -- The Residual 
       Funding Gap -- The Way Forward -- Notes -- References -- 
       Chapter 9 Governance: The Key to Progress -- The Context 
       of National Governance -- Traditions and Attitudes -- 
       Institutions -- Capacity -- The Way Forward -- Notes -- 
       References -- Chapter 10 Conclusion: An Agenda for Action 
       -- Critical Transport Policy Issues -- Improving 
       Governance -- Expenditure Requirements -- Notes -- 
       References -- Appendix 1 Introduction -- Appendix 1a AICD 
       Background Documents Relevant to the Transport Sector -- 
       Appendix 1b Country Typology for Study Countries -- 
       Reference -- Appendix 2 Roads -- Appendix 2a Road Data 
       Sources and Analysis -- Appendix 2b Basic Country Data for
       the Set of 40 Countries -- Appendix 2c Classified Road 
       Network Length for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2d Road 
       Network Densities for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2e Road 
       Network Length by Surface Class and Network Type for 40 
       Countries -- Appendix 2f Average Annual Daily Traffic by 
       Road Type for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2g Distribution of 
       Networks by Traffic Level for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2h 
       Vehicle Utilization of Roads by Surface Class and by 
       Passenger and Freight for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2i 
       Classified Road Network Condition by Network Type for 40 
       Countries -- Appendix 2j Road Accident Rates for Countries
       in Africa -- Appendix 2k Road Maintenance Initiative 
       Institutional Indicators, September 2007 -- Appendix 2l 
       Selected Standards by Network Type, Surface Class, and 
       Traffic Level for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2m Preservation
       Requirements for Securing the Custom Standard over a 20-
       Year Period for 40 Countries 
505 8  Appendix 2n Preservation Requirements for Securing the 
       Optimal Standard over a 20-Year Period for 40 Countries --
       Appendix 2o Custom Standard 20-Year Preservation Needs by 
       Work Type for 40 Countries -- Appendix 2p Optimal Standard
       20-Year Preservation Needs by Work Type for 40 Countries -
       - References -- Appendix 3 Rail Transport -- Appendix 3a 
       Rail Networks in Africa -- Appendix 3b Production 
       Structure of African Railways, Average 1995-2005 -- 
       Appendix 3c Rail Passenger Traffic -- Appendix 3d Pricing 
       and Institutions -- Appendix 3e Factor Productivity -- 
       Railway Names -- Reference -- Appendix 4 Airports and Air 
       Transport -- Appendix 4a Data Sources for Air Transport 
       Analysis -- Appendix 4b Airports -- Appendix 4c City Pairs
       Served -- Appendix 4d Installation of Ground-Based 
       Navigational Aids in Africa -- Appendix 4e Total Capacity 
       Supplied -- Appendix 4f Costs of Airport Construction 
       versus Rehabilitation -- Appendix 4g Domestic Air 
       Transport Markets in Africa, 2007 -- Appendix 4h Market 
       Concentration, 2007 -- Appendix 4i Trends in Aircraft Age 
       -- Appendix 4j Trends in Aircraft Size -- Appendix 4k 
       Safety Assessments, 2007 -- Appendix 5 Ports and Shipping 
       -- Appendix 5a Annual Traffic -- Appendix 5b Institutional
       Characteristics -- Appendix 5c Infrastructure Facilities -
       - Appendix 5d Cargo-Handling Performance Indicators -- 
       Appendix 5e Port Access and Landside Quality -- Appendix 
       5f Average Port Costs and Charges -- Appendix 6 
       Expenditure Needs -- Appendix 6 Costs of Achieving Targets
       of Pragmatic Scenario, by Expenditure Purpose -- Appendix 
       7 Financing -- Appendix 7a Transport Spending and Finance 
       Sources, by Country -- Appendix 7b Potential Efficiency 
       Gains -- Appendix 7c Agency and Total Social Benefits of 
       Timely Road Maintenance -- Appendix 7d Closing the Gap -- 
       Note -- Index -- Back Cover 
520    This book presents and analyzes the results of a 
       comprehensive collection of data on the extent and 
       condition of transport infrastructure in Sub-Saharan 
       Africa, identifies the reasons for poor performance, and 
       estimates future financing needs.The transport facilities 
       of Sub-Saharan Africa were built primarily for the 
       colonial exploitation of mineral and agricultural 
       resources. The chief goal of road and rail networks was to
       link mines, plantations, and other sites for the 
       exploitation and transformation on natural resources to 
       ports, rather than to provide general connectivity within 
       the region. The road network of 1.75 million kilometers 
       exhibits a low density with respect to population. Its 
       average spatial density is very low by world standards. 
       The network carries low average traffic levels. Even so, 
       because most African countries have a low GDP, the fiscal 
       burden of the network is the highest among world regions, 
       maintenance is underfinanced, and road conditions are on 
       average poor, while road accident rates are very high. 
       Attempts to improve the financing of maintenance through 
       ?second generation road funds? have met with some success,
       but there remain serious weaknesses in implementation. 
       Road freight transport is fragmented, but cartelized, with
       high rates and high profits.Railways were also built 
       mainly as for the exportation of minerals and crops. With 
       the exception of two or three very specialized bulk 
       mineral lines, the traffic volumes are low, and the 
       railways have been in financial decline since the 1960s. 
       Concessioning of the lines to private operators has 
       improved performance, but governments often impose 
       unachievable requirements on the companies, and investment
       remains inadequate for long-term sustainability.Most of 
       the 260 airports that provide year-round commercial 
       service in Sub-Saharan Africa have adequate runway 
       capacity, 
520 8  though some of the larger airports suffer from a shortage 
       of terminal capacity. More than a quarter of the runways 
       are in marginal or poor condition, and air traffic control
       and navigation facilities are below international 
       standards. Though airport charges are high, few airports 
       are truly financially sustainable. Three national carriers
       are quite successful, but most are small and barely 
       sustainable. Protection persists in the domestic and 
       intercontinental markets, but the international market in 
       the region has been effectively liberalized. The safety 
       record is poor.Most ports are small by international 
       standards. Many are still publicly owned and suffer from 
       inadequate equipment and poor productivity. Only a few 
       highly specialized ports, including private ports 
       integrated with the extraction companies, meet the highest
       international standards Costs and charges are high. But 
       there is a trend toward concessioning of facilities to 
       large groups specializing in international container 
       terminals and port operations. Fortunately the shipping 
       market is now deregulated.Urban transport suffers from 
       some infrastructure deficiencies, particularly in the 
       condition of urban roads. But the main problems of the 
       sector are associated with the fragmented and poorly 
       regulated nature of most urban bus markets. Finance for 
       large buses is very difficult to obtain. In all modes the 
       situation is made worse by failures of governance in both 
       the provision and regulation of infrastructure. The 
       overall deficit in financing for infrastructure is 
       estimated using a model based on the application of 
       hypothesized standards of connectivity for all modal 
       networks and facilities. Once the amount of infrastructure
       needed to meet those standards was calculated, these 
       ?requirements? were compared with existing stocks and the 
       costs of making the transition over a ten-year period were
520 8  calculated. A ?base? scenario used standards similar to 
       those pertaining in developed regions, while a ?pragmatic?
       scenario applied lower standards. In a separate exercise, 
       the actual average expenditures on transport 
       infrastructure from all sources were researched. This 
       allowed the funding gap to be deduced by subtraction. The 
       results showed that, excluding official development 
       assistance, no country spent enough to meet the base 
       standard, and that even with aid there remained 
       substantial deficits in maintenance funding in many 
       countries, with the worst situations found in the low-
       income, politically fragile group of countries 
588    Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other
       sources 
590    Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest 
       Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access 
       may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated 
       libraries 
650  0 Transportation -- Africa.;Infrastructure (Economics) -- 
       Africa 
655  4 Electronic books 
776 08 |iPrint version:|aGwilliam, Ken|tAfrica's Transport 
       Infrastructure : Mainstreaming Maintenance and Management
       |dHerndon : World Bank Publications,c2011|z9780821384565 
830  0 Directions in Development 
856 40 |uhttps://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/sinciatw/
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