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Author Niwa, Toshimitsu
Title Uremic Toxins
Imprint Somerset : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2012
©2012
book jacket
Edition 1st ed
Descript 1 online resource (398 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Series Wiley Series on Mass Spectrometry Ser. ; v.50
Wiley Series on Mass Spectrometry Ser
Note UREMIC TOXINS: BY MASS SPECTROMETRY -- CONTENTS -- PREFACE -- CONTRIBUTORS -- SECTION 1: UREMIC TOXINS -- 1. Uremic Toxins: An Integrated Overview of Definition and Classification -- 1.1 INTRODUCTION -- 1.2 DEFINITION OF A UREMIC TOXIN -- 1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF UREMIC TOXINS BY PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS -- 1.4 CLASSIFICATION OF UREMIC TOXINS ACCORDING TO PATHOBIOLOGICAL PROCESSES UNDERLYING ACCUMULATION -- 1.5 THE RELATIONSHIPS OF UREMIC TOXINS TO THE PATHOBIOLOGY OF UREMIA -- 1.6 CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF UREMIA AND THE ROLE OF TROPISMS -- 1.7 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- 2. Classification and a List of Uremic Toxins -- 2.1 INTRODUCTION -- 2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF UREMIC RETENTION SOLUTES -- 2.3 LISTING AND IDENTIFICATION OF UREMIC RETENTION SOLUTES -- 2.4 METHOD -- 2.5 RESULTS -- 2.5.1 Small Water-Soluble Compounds (MW 500 Da) -- 2.5.4 Newly Identified Solutes with Mass Spectrometry (MS) -- 2.6 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- 3. Analysis of Uremic Toxins with Mass Spectrometry -- 3.1 LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY (LC/MS) -- 3.2 CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS/MASS SPECTROMETRY (CE/MS) -- 3.3 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC/MS) -- 3.4 MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY (MALDI-MS) -- REFERENCES -- SECTION 2: SELECTED UREMIC TOXINS -- 4. Indoxyl Sulfate -- 4.1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT -- 4.2 METABOLISM AND BIOLOGY -- 4.3 QUANTIFICATION METHODS -- 4.4 PLASMA/SERUM LEVELS IN UREMIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY SUBJECTS -- 4.5 TOXICITY AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE -- 4.5.1 Inhibition of Drug Binding and Metabolism -- 4.5.2 Nephrotoxicity -- 4.5.3 Vascular Toxicity -- 4.5.4 Bone Toxicity -- 4.6 THERAPEUTIC METHODS TO REMOVE THE TOXINS -- 4.6.1 Oral Sorbent (AST-120) -- 4.6.2 Hemodialysis (HD) -- 4.6.3 Peritoneal Dialysis (PD)
4.6.4 Bifidobacterium -- 4.7 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- 5. p-Cresyl Sulfate -- 5.1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT -- 5.2 METABOLISM AND BIOLOGY -- 5.2.1 p-Cresyl Conjugates -- 5.3 QUANTIFICATION METHOD -- 5.4 PLASMA/SERUM LEVELS IN UREMIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY SUBJECTS -- 5.5 TOXICITY AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE -- 5.5.1 In Vitro Studies -- 5.5.2 Observational Studies -- 5.6 THERAPEUTIC METHODS TO REMOVE THE TOXINS -- 5.6.1 Changing of Generation -- 5.6.2 Hemodialysis Versus Peritoneal Dialysis -- 5.7 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- 6. 3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic Acid -- 6.1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT -- 6.2 METABOLISM AND BIOLOGY -- 6.3 QUANTIFICATION METHOD -- 6.4 PLASMA/SERUM LEVELS IN UREMIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY SUBJECTS -- 6.5 TOXICITY AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE -- 6.5.1 Inhibition of Drug Binding to Serum Albumin -- 6.5.2 Inhibition of Glutathione S-Transferase -- 6.5.3 Inhibition of Erythroid Colony Formation -- 6.5.4 Inhibition of Mitochondrial Respiration -- 6.5.5 Thyroid Dysfunction -- 6.5.6 Inhibition of Tubular Secretion -- 6.5.7 Neurological Symptoms -- 6.5.8 Inhibition of Drug Metabolism in Liver -- 6.5.9 Production of ROS in Vascular Endothelial Cells -- 6.6 THERAPEUTIC METHODS TO REMOVE THE TOXINS -- 6.6.1 Protein-Leaking Hemodialysis -- 6.6.2 Peritoneal Dialysis -- 6.6.3 Plasma Exchange -- REFERENCES -- 7. Phenylacetic Acid -- 7.1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT -- 7.2 METABOLISM AND BIOLOGY -- 7.3 QUANTIFICATION METHODS -- 7.4 PLASMA/SERUM LEVELS IN UREMIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY SUBJECTS -- 7.5 TOXICITY AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE -- 7.6 THERAPEUTIC METHODS TO REMOVE THE TOXINS -- REFERENCES -- 8. Homocysteine and Hydrogen Sulfide, Two Opposing Aspects in the Pathobiology of Sulfur Compounds in Chronic Renal Failure -- 8.1 HOMOCYSTEINE -- 8.1.1 Chemical Structure and Molecular Weight of Homocysteine
8.1.2 Metabolism and Biology of Homocysteine -- 8.1.3 Quantification Method of Homocysteine -- 8.1.4 Plasma/Serum Levels of Homocysteine in Uremic Patients and Healthy Subjects -- 8.1.5 Toxicity and Clinical Relevance of Homocysteine -- 8.1.6 Therapeutic Methods to Remove Homocysteine -- 8.2 HYDROGEN SULFIDE -- 8.2.1 Chemical Structure and Molecular Weight of Hydrogen Sulfide -- 8.2.2 Metabolism and Biology of Hydrogen Sulfide -- 8.2.3 Quantification Method of Hydrogen Sulfide -- 8.2.4 Plasma/Serum Levels of Hydrogen Sulfide in Uremic Patients and Healthy Subjects -- 8.2.5 Toxicity and Clinical Relevance of Hydrogen Sulfide -- REFERENCES -- 9. Guanidino Compounds -- 9.1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT -- 9.2 METABOLISM AND BIOLOGY -- 9.3 QUANTIFICATION METHODS -- 9.4 PLASMA/SERUM LEVELS IN UREMIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY SUBJECTS -- 9.5 TOXICITY AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE -- 9.5.1 Cardiovascular, Systemic, and General Neurologic Toxicity of GCs -- 9.5.2 Uremic GCs as Experimental Convulsants -- 9.5.3 Effects of Uremic GCs on Amino Acid Receptors -- 9.5.4 Hypothetical Mechanism of Neuroexcitation by Uremic GCs -- 9.5.5 Uremic GCs in the Course of CKD -- 9.6 THERAPEUTIC METHODS TO REMOVE THE TOXINS -- 9.7 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- 10. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine -- 10.1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT -- 10.2 METABOLISM AND BIOLOGY -- 10.2.1 Arginine and its Metabolism -- 10.2.2 Nitric Oxide (NO) and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) -- 10.2.3 Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors -- 10.2.4 Production and Metabolism -- 10.3 QUANTIFICATION METHOD -- 10.3.1 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) -- 10.3.2 Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) -- 10.3.3 Enzymatic Immunoanalysis -- 10.3.4 Additional Methods -- 10.3.5 Comparison of Separative and Immunochemical Methods -- 10.4 PLASMA/SERUMLEVELS IN UREMIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY SUBJECTS
10.4.1 ADMA After Renal Transplantation -- 10.5 TOXICITY AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE -- 10.5.1 Progression of Renal Injury -- 10.5.2 ADMA in CKD Patients and Cardiovascular Risk -- 10.6 THERAPEUTIC METHODS TO REMOVE THE TOXINS -- REFERENCES -- 11. Nicotinamide Metabolites -- 11.1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT -- 11.2 METABOLISM AND BIOLOGY -- 11.3 QUANTIFICATION METHOD -- 11.4 PLASMA/SERUM LEVELS IN UREMIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY SUBJECTS -- 11.5 TOXICITY AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE -- 11.6 THERAPEUTIC METHODS TO REMOVE THE TOXINS -- 11.7 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- 12. Dicarbonyls (Glyoxal, Methylglyoxal, and 3-Deoxyglucosone) -- 12.1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT -- 12.2 METABOLISM AND BIOLOGY -- 12.3 QUANTIFICATION METHOD -- 12.4 PLASMA/SERUM LEVELS IN UREMIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY SUBJECTS -- 12.5 TOXICITY AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE -- 12.6 THERAPEUTIC METHODS TO REMOVE THE TOXINS -- REFERENCES -- 13. Glucose Degradation Products in Peritoneal Dialysis -- 13.1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT -- 13.2 METABOLISM AND BIOLOGY -- 13.3 QUANTIFICATION METHOD -- 13.3.1 Quantification of α-Dicarbonyl-GDPs in PD Fluids -- 13.3.2 Quantification of Monocarbonyl-GDPs in PD Fluids -- 13.3.3 Quantification of GDPs in Plasma Samples -- 13.4 LEVELS IN PD FLUIDS -- 13.5 TOXICITY AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE -- 13.6 TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS TO AVOID OR REMOVE THE TOXINS IN PD FLUIDS -- REFERENCES -- 14. Dinucleoside Polyphosphates -- 14.1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT -- 14.2 METABOLISM AND BIOLOGY -- 14.3 QUANTIFICATION METHODS -- 14.4 PLASMA/SERUM LEVELS IN UREMIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY SUBJECTS -- 14.5 TOXICITY AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE -- 14.5.1 Vasoconstrictive Effects -- 14.5.2 Vasodilatoric Effects -- 14.5.3 Effects on Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Mesangial Cells -- 14.5.4 Effects on Renal Function
14.5.5 Effects on Vascular Calcification -- 14.5.6 Effects on Activity of Ca2+ -ATPase -- 14.5.7 Effects on Platelet Aggregation -- 14.6 THERAPEUTIC METHODS TO REMOVE THE TOXINS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 15. Parathyroid Hormone -- 15.1 PTH: STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY -- 15.2 ACTION OF PTH -- 15.3 MEASUREMENT OF PTH IN BLOOD -- 15.4 THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF PTH IN CKD -- 15.5 ACUTE EFFECTS OF PTH ON CYTOSOLIC CALCIUM -- 15.6 CHRONIC EFFECT OF PTH ON TISSUE CALCIUM AND CYTOSOLIC CALCIUM -- 15.7 EFFECT OF PTH ON PHOSPHOLIPIDS OF CELL MEMBRANE -- 15.8 MECHANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PTH-INDUCED RISE IN ([Ca2+])i IN CRF -- 15.9 ROLE OF PTH-MEDIATED ELEVATION IN [Ca2+]i IN THE GENESIS OF THE UREMIC SYNDROME -- 15.10 MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM IN CRF -- REFERENCES -- 16. β2-Microglobulin -- 16.1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT -- 16.2 METABOLISM AND BIOLOGY -- 16.3 QUANTIFICATION METHODS -- 16.4 PLASMA/SERUM LEVELS IN UREMIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY SUBJECTS -- 16.5 TOXICITY AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE -- 16.5.1 Adequacy of Dialysis Treatment -- 16.5.2 Mortality -- 16.5.3 Dialysis-Related Amyloidosis -- 16.6 THERAPEUTIC METHODS TO REMOVE THE TOXINS -- 16.6.1 Dialysis Modality -- 16.6.2 HD with High-Flux Membrane -- 16.6.3 HD with β2-Microglobulin Adsorption Column -- 16.6.4 Hemodiafiltration -- REFERENCES -- 17. Cytokines -- 17.1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT -- 17.2 METABOLISM AND BIOLOGY -- 17.2.1 Proinflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines -- 17.2.2 Cytokine Receptors -- 17.2.3 Genetic Polymorphisms -- 17.2.4 Inactive and "Meric" Forms -- 17.3 QUANTIFICATION METHOD -- 17.3.1 Samples Collected and Analyzed -- 17.3.2 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) -- 17.3.3 Multiplex Assays/Arrays -- 17.4 PLASMA/SERUM LEVELS IN UREMIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY SUBJECTS -- 17.4.1 Relative Levels -- 17.5 TOXICITY AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
17.5.1 Balance of Proinflammatory versus Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines
Reviews all the latest basic and clinical research findings With contributions from leading international experts in the field, this book is dedicated to all facets of uremic toxins research, including low molecular weight solutes, protein-bound solutes, and middle molecules. Moreover, it covers everything from basic mass spectrometry research to the latest clinical findings and practices. Uremic Toxins is divided into three sections: Section One, Uremic Toxins, explores the definition, classification, listing, and mass spectrometric analysis of uremic toxins Section Two, Selected Uremic Toxins, describes key uremic toxins, explaining chemical structures, metabolism, analytical methods, plasma levels, toxicity, clinical implications, and removal methods. Among the uremic toxins covered are indoxyl sulfate, asymmetric dimethylarginine, PTH, ß2-microglobulin, and AGEs Section Three, Therapeutic Removal of Uremic Toxins, describes how uremic toxins can be removed by hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and oral sorbent All chapters are based on the authors' thorough review of the literature as well as their own personal laboratory and clinical experience. References at the end of each chapter provide a gateway to the literature in the field. Reviewing all the latest basic and clinical research findings, Uremic Toxins will help bench scientists in nephrology advance their own investigations. It will also help clinicians take advantage of the latest tested and proven treatments for the management of chronic kidney disease
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Niwa, Toshimitsu Uremic Toxins Somerset : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated,c2012 9781118135136
Subject Uremia.;Toxins
Electronic books
Alt Author Niwa, Toshimitsu
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