LEADER 00000cam  22002895i 4500 
001    1056244177 
003    OCoLC 
005    20210926220357.0 
008    080220t20182018cauab    b    000 0 eng   
010    2019301626 
020    9781977401632|q(pbk.) 
020    1977401635|q(pbk.) 
024 8  10.7249/RR2515 
027    RAND/RR-2515-RC 
035    (OCoLC)1056244177 
040    NLM|beng|erda|cNLM|dBDX|dYDX|dOCLCF|dLML|dDLC|dRSM|dOCLCO
       |dAS 
042    pcc 
043    awgz---|aa-is---|af-ua--- 
050  4 TD313.G39|bE37 2018 
082 04 333.91|223 
100 1  Efron, Shira,|eauthor 
245 14 The public health impacts of Gaza's water crisis :
       |banalysis and policy options /|cShira Efron, Jordan R. 
       Fischbach, Ilana Blum, Rouslan I. Karimov, Melinda Moore 
264  1 Santa Monica, Calif. :|bRAND Corporation,|c[2018] 
264  4 |c©2018 
300    xx, 88 pages :|bcolor illustrations, color maps ;|c23 cm 
336    text|btxt|2rdacontent 
337    unmediated|bn|2rdamedia 
338    volume|bnc|2rdacarrier 
500    "This work was conducted within the RAND Center for Middle
       East Public Policy (CMEPP)"--Preface (page iv) 
504    Includes bibliographical references (pages 75-87) 
505 0  Introduction -- Water and Wastewater Services in Gaza -- 
       Public Health Risks from Water Contamination -- 
       Conclusions and Policy Recommendations 
520    Gaza has long had water and sanitation challenges, but 
       today it is in a state of emergency. Its dual water crisis
       combines a shortage of potable water for drinking, cooking,
       and hygiene with a lack of wastewater sanitation. As a 
       result, over 108,000 cubic meters of untreated sewage flow
       daily from Gaza into the Mediterranean Sea, creating 
       extreme public health hazards in Gaza, Israel, and Egypt. 
       While these problems are not new, rapidly deteriorating 
       infrastructure, strict limitations on the import of 
       construction materials and water pumps, and a diminished 
       and unreliable energy supply have accelerated the water 
       crisis and exacerbated the water-related health risks. 
       Three wars between Israel and Hamas since 2009 and intra-
       Palestinian rivalry between Hamas and Fatah have further 
       hindered the rehabilitation of Gaza's water and sanitation
       sectors. This report describes the relationship between 
       Gaza's water problems and its energy challenges and 
       examines the implications of this water crisis for public 
       health. It reviews the current state of water supply and 
       water sanitation in Gaza, analyzes water-related risks to 
       public health in Gaza, and explains potential regional 
       public health risks for Israel and Egypt. The authors 
       recommend a number of steps to ameliorate the crisis and 
       decrease the potential for a regional public health 
       disaster that take into consideration current political 
       constraints. The audience for this report includes 
       stakeholders involved in Gaza, including the Palestinian, 
       Israeli, and Egyptian governments, various international 
       organizations and nongovernmental organizations working on
       the ground in Gaza, and the donor community seeking to 
       rehabilitate Gaza 
650  0 Water-supply|xHealth aspects|zGaza Strip 
650  0 Water-supply|xHealth aspects|zIsrael 
650  0 Water-supply|xHealth aspects|zEgypt 
650  0 Water resources development|zGaza Strip 
650  0 Water resources development|zIsrael 
650  0 Water resources development|zEgypt 
650  0 Water|xPurification|zGaza Strip 
650  0 Water|xPurification|zIsrael 
650  0 Water|xPurification|zEgypt 
650  0 Public health|zGaza Strip 
650  0 Public health|zIsrael 
650  0 Public health|zEgypt 
650  7 Public health.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst01082238 
650  7 Water|xPurification.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst01171363 
650  7 Water resources development.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst01171955 
650  7 Water-supply|xHealth aspects.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst01172384 
650 12 Water Supply 
650 22 Water Resources 
650 22 Water Purification 
650 22 Public Health 
651  2 Middle East 
651  2 Egypt 
651  7 Egypt.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst01208755 
651  7 Gaza Strip.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst01240021 
651  7 Israel.|2fast|0(OCoLC)fst01204236 
700 1  Fischbach, Jordan R.,|eauthor  
700 1  Blum, Ilana,|eauthor  
700 1  Karimov, Rouslan I.,|eauthor 
700 1  Moore, Melinda,|cM.D.,|eauthor 
710 2  Center for Middle East Public Policy (Rand Corporation),
       |esponsoring body 
710 2  Rand Corporation,|epublisher 
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