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Author Mattoo, Aaditya
Title Services Trade and Development : The Experience of Zambia
Imprint Herndon : World Bank Publications, 2007
©2007
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (331 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Series Trade and Development Series
Trade and Development Series
Note Cover -- Title Page -- Contents -- Acknowledgments -- Contributors -- Abbreviations -- CHAPTER 1 Services Trade for Zambia's Development: An Overview -- Introduction -- Method and scope of analysis -- Objectives -- Taking stock of services policy and performance -- Regulatory diagnostics, distributional concerns, and external assistance -- Strategies for trade liberalization, international negotiations, and regional integration -- Sectoral coverage -- Mission in Lusaka -- The role of services and the services trade -- Services in the Zambian Economy -- Services and Overall Economic Performance -- The Potential Role of the Services Trade -- Some areas have already benefited from openness -- But in other areas, openness has not so far led to improved access to services -- Zambia has failed so far to exploit its advantage in, and reap the developmental benefits of, tourism -- Why has liberalization produced such disappointing results in terms of access? -- Sequences matter -- …within services for economic reasons -- …and political reasons -- …as well as in implementing goods and services reform -- Looking ahead: What needs to be done to improve access? -- Eliminating Remaining Barriers to Entry -- Improving the Quality of Regulation to Remedy Market Failure -- Policies to Increase Access for the Poor -- Instruments that distort the functioning of markets often fail to improve access to services or do so at a high cost in terms of efficiency -- New instruments do better at reconciling equity with efficiency -- The government should see universal access in a horizontal context and exploit the synergies between services sectors to increase the likelihood of achieving access goals -- Priorities for International Engagement
Zambia's international engagement can help mobilize assistance for, and lend credibility to, domestic reform, can deliver improved access to foreign markets, and can further deeper regional integration -- Aid for Services Trade: A Priority in the Doha Agenda and EPA Contexts -- Cooperation on Temporary Migration: A Priority in the EPA or Bilateral Context -- Facilitating the temporary movement of both the skilled and unskilled is accomplished more easily in a bilateral than a multilateral context -- Deeper Integration: A Priority in the Regional COMESA and SADC Contexts -- Communications: Zambia has a stake in regional cooperation because of shared infrastructure -- Road and air transport: Steps toward the creation of a regional market -- Liberalization of regional transport markets has stalled -- Existing initiatives to remove regulatory barriers to trade in road transport services must be strengthened -- Accounting and other professional services: Developing regionally appropriate standards -- Competition policy: Regional cooperation can help overcome the limitations of national bodies -- Potential for cooperation exists, but it will be difficult to accomplish -- Notes -- References -- Annex 1. List of Meeting Participants -- General -- Accounting -- Finance -- Telecommunications -- Migration -- Air Transport -- Tourism -- Annex 2. Schedule of Specific Commitments -- CHAPTER 2 Services in the Zambian Economy -- Introduction -- Why do services matter and what is the role of services trade? -- Services Dominate the Zambian Economy -- Services Matter… -- for the operations of firms… -- for the productivity of firms… -- farms… -- and their ability to take advantage of new opportunities that arise from trade liberalization
Openness and foreign participation could, in principle, contribute to the development of Zambia's services sectors and hence overall economic performance -- Zambia also has a growing stake in exports of tourism services -- Despite its natural advantages, Zambia has performed poorly as an exporter of services -- Zambia has underperformed even after accounting for its low income -- …because of weaknesses in the business environment, communications, and finance -- Despite openness and significant foreign participation, access to services in Zambia has hardly expanded -- Zambian services sectors are mostly open and have significant foreign presence… -- and in some areas Zambia has already benefited from openness… -- but in others, despite openness and foreign investment, access to services remains low -- Access is also unequal… -- and in some areas, access has actually deteriorated after liberalization -- Notes -- References -- CHAPTER 3 Telecommunications: The Persistence of Monopoly -- Overview -- The state of telecommunications in Zambia -- Limited Access and Slow Growth of Telecommunications Services -- High international call prices -- The poor state of telecommunications services penalizes other sectors -- Why has telecommunications performance been below par? -- Market Structure and Regulatory Environment -- Fixed-line services -- Cellular mobile segment -- Internet access -- The benefits of liberalization and sector reform in Zambia -- The Benefits of Competitive Markets: Evidence from Other Countries -- Lower call tariffs -- Increased penetration of communication services -- Investment -- The Benefits of Competitive Markets: Estimates for Zambia -- Addressing concerns raised by liberalization -- Addressing Zamtel's Concerns: The Future Role of the Incumbent -- Tariff rebalancing -- Restructuring Zamtel
Addressing Potential Concerns of the Government -- Fiscal revenues -- Empowerment -- National security -- Addressing Regulatory Inadequacies -- Implementing a cost-based interconnection regime -- Improving capacity at policy and regulatory institutions -- Adopting a procompetitive licensing regime -- Strengthening competition policy -- Addressing distributional concerns and meeting universal service objectives -- Bringing connectivity "beyond the market" -- Creating conditions for the deployment of national backbone infrastructure -- Combining and Sequencing Policies -- Cross-country evidence -- Sequencing in Zambia: Learning from the past -- … to design a proposed course of action for 2006 -- International engagement, external assistance, and WTO commitments -- Notes -- References -- Annex 1. The Reference Paper on Regulatory Principles -- Annex 2. Benchmarking License Fee for International Gateway -- Annex 3. Benchmarking-Restrictions on Foreign Investment in Telecommunication -- CHAPTER 4 Financial Services: Dealing with Limited and Unequal Access -- Overview -- Reforms and Access to Banking Services in Zambia -- Size and Outreach of Zambia's Banking System -- Bank Branches in Rural Areas -- Credit to Households and Private Sector in Zambia -- Role of MFIs in Zambia -- Why has liberalization not delivered benefits? -- Sequencing of Liberalization Reforms -- Poor Economic Performance and Macroeconomic Environment -- Weak Payment System Infrastructure -- Deficiencies in the Legal, Regulatory, and Judiciary Framework -- Need to Adapt Prudential Requirements to Zambia's Needs -- Fragmented Regional Markets -- Proactive policies to promote access to financial services -- Instruments that distort the functioning of markets often fail to improve access to services or do so at a high cost in terms of efficiency
New instruments attempt to reconcile equity with efficiency -- Access to financial services might be better attained by exploiting the synergies between services sectors to increase the likelihood of achieving access goals -- Notes -- References -- Annex 1. Statistical Data -- CHAPTER 5 Air Transport: Revitalizing Yamoussoukro -- Overview -- Priorities for Reform -- Air transport service liberalization -- Reform of the fuel market -- Reforms to address the shortcomings in the regulatory framework and oversight mechanism -- The size and structure of the Zambian air transport market -- The Domestic and Regional Markets -- African Continental Traffic -- Intercontinental Traffic -- Air transport policy and liberalization -- Air Transport Policy -- The Re-creation of a National Airline -- Jet Fuel Pricing -- Air Transport Liberalization -- Regulatory and Oversight Mechanism Environment -- Infrastructure -- Airport Infrastructure -- Airport Traffic Control Infrastructure -- Other Air Transport Infrastructure -- Notes -- References -- Annex 1. Bilateral Air Services Agreements with Zambia -- Annex 2 ICAO: Critical Elements of a Safety Oversight System, February 2004 -- CHAPTER 6 Tourism: Unfulfilled Promise -- Overview -- The largely untapped potential of tourism in Zambia -- Zambia Has a Comparative Advantage in Tourism Trade -- Zambia could get a higher economic return from specializing in tourism than in other sectors -- The Tourism Potential of Zambia Remains Largely Untapped -- On the demand side: Zambia's success appears limited and still fragile -- On the supply side: Zambia has inadequately and unevenly used its resources -- Macroeconomic evidence suggests that Zambia is not fully exploiting its tourism potential -- Harnessing tourism trade: Directions for government policy
Zambia Needs to Eliminate Administrative Constraints on Investment and Business Operation
Some see trade in services as irrelevant to the development agenda for least developed countries (LDCs). Others see few benefits from past market openings by LDCs. This book debunks both views. It finds that serious imperfections in Zambia's reform of services trade deprived the country of significant benefits and diminished faith in liberalization. What is to be done? Move aggressively and consistently to eliminate barriers to entry and competition. Develop and enforce regulations to deal with market failures. And implement proactive policies to widen the access of firms, farms, and consumers to services of all kinds. These lessons from Zambia are applicable to all LDCs. In all this, international agreements can help. But to succeed, LDCs must commit to open markets and their trading partners must provide assistance for complementary reforms. Zambia, which leads the LDC group at the World Trade Organization, can show the way
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Mattoo, Aaditya Services Trade and Development : The Experience of Zambia Herndon : World Bank Publications,c2007 9780821368497
Subject Service industries -- Zambia -- Evaluation.;Service industries -- Government policy -- Zambia.;Free trade -- Zambia.;International trade
Electronic books
Alt Author Mattoo, Aaditya
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