Edition 
1st ed 
Descript 
1 online resource (244 pages) 

text txt rdacontent 

computer c rdamedia 

online resource cr rdacarrier 
Series 
Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics Ser. ; v.73 

Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics Ser

Note 
Computational Lithography  Contents  Preface  Acknowledgments  Acronyms  1 Introduction  1.1 OPTICAL LITHOGRAPHY  1.1.1 Optical Lithography and Integrated Circuits  1.1.2 Brief History of Optical Lithography Systems  1.2 RAYLEIGH'S RESOLUTION  1.3 RESIST PROCESSES AND CHARACTERISTICS  1.4 TECHNIQUES IN COMPUTATIONAL LITHOGRAPHY  1.4.1 Optical Proximity Correction  1.4.2 PhaseShifting Masks  1.4.3 OffAxis Illumination  1.4.4 SecondGeneration RETs  1.5 OUTLINE  2 Optical Lithography Systems  2.1 PARTIALLY COHERENT IMAGING SYSTEMS  2.1.1 Abbe's Model  2.1.2 Hopkins Diffraction Model  2.1.3 Coherent and Incoherent Imaging Systems  2.2 APPROXIMATION MODELS  2.2.1 Fourier Series Expansion Model  2.2.2 Singular Value Decomposition Model  2.2.3 Average Coherent Approximation Model  2.2.4 Discussion and Comparison  2.3 SUMMARY  3 RuleBased Resolution Enhancement Techniques  3.1 RET TYPES  3.1.1 RuleBased RETs  3.1.2 ModelBased RETs  3.1.3 Hybrid RETs  3.2 RULEBASED OPC  3.2.1 Catastrophic OPC  3.2.2 OneDimensional OPC  3.2.3 LineShortening Reduction OPC  3.2.4 TwoDimensional OPC  3.3 RULEBASED PSM  3.3.1 DarkField Application  3.3.2 LightField Application  3.4 RULEBASED OAI  3.5 SUMMARY  4 Fundamentals of Optimization  4.1 DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION  4.1.1 Definitions in the Optimization Problem  4.1.2 Classification of Optimization Problems  4.2 UNCONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION  4.2.1 Solution of Unconstrained Optimization Problem  4.2.2 Unconstrained Optimization Algorithms  4.3 SUMMARY  5 Computational Lithography with Coherent Illumination  5.1 PROBLEM FORMULATION  5.2 OPC OPTIMIZATION  5.2.1 OPC Design Algorithm  5.2.2 Simulations  5.3 TWOPHASE PSM OPTIMIZATION  5.3.1 TwoPhase PSM Design Algorithm  5.3.2 Simulations 

5.4 GENERALIZED PSM OPTIMIZATION  5.4.1 Generalized PSM Design Algorithm  5.4.2 Simulations  5.5 RESIST MODELING EFFECTS  5.6 SUMMARY  6 Regularization Framework  6.1 DISCRETIZATION PENALTY  6.1.1 Discretization Penalty for OPC Optimization  6.1.2 Discretization Penalty for TwoPhase PSM Optimization  6.1.3 Discretization Penalty for Generalized PSM Optimization  6.2 COMPLEXITY PENALTY  6.2.1 Total Variation Penalty  6.2.2 Global Wavelet Penalty  6.2.3 Localized Wavelet Penalty  6.3 SUMMARY  7 Computational Lithography with Partially Coherent Illumination  7.1 OPC OPTIMIZATION  7.1.1 OPC Design Algorithm Using the Fourier Series Expansion Model  7.1.2 Simulations Using the Fourier Series Expansion Model  7.1.3 OPC Design Algorithm Using the Average Coherent Approximation Model  7.1.4 Simulations Using the Average Coherent Approximation Model  7.1.5 Discussion and Comparison  7.2 PSM OPTIMIZATION  7.2.1 PSM Design Algorithm Using the Singular Value Decomposition Model  7.2.2 Discretization Regularization for PSM Design Algorithm  7.2.3 Simulations  7.3 SUMMARY  8 Other RET Optimization Techniques  8.1 DOUBLEPATTERNING METHOD  8.2 POSTPROCESSING BASED ON 2D DCT  8.3 PHOTORESIST TONE REVERSING METHOD  8.4 SUMMARY  9 Source and Mask Optimization  9.1 LITHOGRAPHY PRELIMINARIES  9.2 TOPOLOGICAL CONSTRAINT  9.3 SOURCEMASK OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM  9.4 SIMULATIONS  9.5 SUMMARY  10 Coherent ThickMask Optimization  10.1 KIRCHHOFF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS  10.2 BOUNDARY LAYER MODEL  10.2.1 Boundary Layer Model in Coherent Imaging Systems  10.2.2 Boundary Layer Model in Partially Coherent Imaging Systems  10.3 LITHOGRAPHY PRELIMINARIES  10.4 OPC OPTIMIZATION  10.4.1 Topological Constraint  10.4.2 OPC Optimization Algorithm Based on BL Model Under Coherent Illumination 

10.4.3 Simulations  10.5 PSM OPTIMIZATION  10.5.1 Topological Constraint  10.5.2 PSM Optimization Algorithm Based on BL Model Under Coherent Illumination  10.5.3 Simulations  10.6 SUMMARY  11 Conclusions and New Directions of Computational Lithography  11.1 CONCLUSION  11.2 NEW DIRECTIONS OF COMPUTATIONAL LITHOGRAPHY  11.2.1 OPC Optimization for the NextGeneration Lithography Technologies  11.2.2 Initialization Approach for the Inverse Lithography Optimization  11.2.3 Double Patterning and Double Exposure Methods in Partially Coherent Imaging System  11.2.4 OPC and PSM Optimizations for Inverse Lithography Based on Rigorous Mask Models in Partially Coherent Imaging System  11.2.5 Simultaneous Source and Mask Optimization for Inverse Lithography Based on Rigorous Mask Models  11.2.6 Investigation of Factors Influencing the Complexity of the OPC and PSM Optimization Algorithms  Appendix A: Formula Derivation in Chapter 5  Appendix B: Manhattan Geometry  Appendix C: Formula Derivation in Chapter 6  Appendix D: Formula Derivation in Chapter 7  Appendix E: Formula Derivation in Chapter 8  Appendix F: Formula Derivation in Chapter 9  Appendix G: Formula Derivation in Chapter 10  Appendix H: Software Guide  References  Index 

A Unified Summary of the Models and Optimization Methods Used in Computational Lithography Optical lithography is one of the most challenging areas of current integrated circuit manufacturing technology. The semiconductor industry is relying more on resolution enhancement techniques (RETs), since their implementation does not require significant changes in fabrication infrastructure. Computational Lithography is the first book to address the computational optimization of RETs in optical lithography, providing an indepth discussion of optimal optical proximity correction (OPC), phase shifting mask (PSM), and offaxis illumination (OAI) RET tools that use modelbased mathematical optimization approaches. The book starts with an introduction to optical lithography systems, electric magnetic field principles, and the fundamentals of optimization from a mathematical point of view. It goes on to describe in detail different types of optimization algorithms to implement RETs. Most of the algorithms developed are based on the application of the OPC, PSM, and OAI approaches and their combinations. Algorithms for coherent illumination as well as partially coherent illumination systems are described, and numerous simulations are offered to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithms. In addition, mathematical derivations of all optimization frameworks are presented. The accompanying MATLAB® software files for all the RET methods described in the book make it easy for readers to run and investigate the codes in order to understand and apply the optimization algorithms, as well as to design a set of optimal lithography masks. The codes may also be used by readers for their research and development activities in their academic or industrial organizations. An accompanying MATLAB® software guide is also included. An accompanying MATLAB® software guide 

is included, and readers can download the software to use with the guide at ftp://ftp.wiley.com/public/sci_tech_med/computational_lithography. Tailored for both entrylevel and experienced readers, Computational Lithography is meant for faculty, graduate students, and researchers, as well as scientists and engineers in industrial organizations whose research or career field is semiconductor IC fabrication, optical lithography, and RETs. Computational lithography draws from the rich theory of inverse problems, optics, optimization, and computational imaging; as such, the book is also directed to researchers and practitioners in these fields 

Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources 

Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries 
Link 
Print version: Ma, Xu Computational Lithography
Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated,c2010 9780470596975

Subject 
Microlithography  Mathematics.;Integrated circuits  Design and construction  Mathematics.;Photolithography  Mathematics.;Semiconductors  Etching  Mathematics.;Resolution (Optics)


Electronic books

Alt Author 
Arce, Gonzalo R

