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Author Ma, Xu
Title Computational Lithography
Imprint Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2010
©2010
book jacket
Edition 1st ed
Descript 1 online resource (244 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Series Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics Ser. ; v.73
Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics Ser
Note Computational Lithography -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Acronyms -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 OPTICAL LITHOGRAPHY -- 1.1.1 Optical Lithography and Integrated Circuits -- 1.1.2 Brief History of Optical Lithography Systems -- 1.2 RAYLEIGH'S RESOLUTION -- 1.3 RESIST PROCESSES AND CHARACTERISTICS -- 1.4 TECHNIQUES IN COMPUTATIONAL LITHOGRAPHY -- 1.4.1 Optical Proximity Correction -- 1.4.2 Phase-Shifting Masks -- 1.4.3 Off-Axis Illumination -- 1.4.4 Second-Generation RETs -- 1.5 OUTLINE -- 2 Optical Lithography Systems -- 2.1 PARTIALLY COHERENT IMAGING SYSTEMS -- 2.1.1 Abbe's Model -- 2.1.2 Hopkins Diffraction Model -- 2.1.3 Coherent and Incoherent Imaging Systems -- 2.2 APPROXIMATION MODELS -- 2.2.1 Fourier Series Expansion Model -- 2.2.2 Singular Value Decomposition Model -- 2.2.3 Average Coherent Approximation Model -- 2.2.4 Discussion and Comparison -- 2.3 SUMMARY -- 3 Rule-Based Resolution Enhancement Techniques -- 3.1 RET TYPES -- 3.1.1 Rule-Based RETs -- 3.1.2 Model-Based RETs -- 3.1.3 Hybrid RETs -- 3.2 RULE-BASED OPC -- 3.2.1 Catastrophic OPC -- 3.2.2 One-Dimensional OPC -- 3.2.3 Line-Shortening Reduction OPC -- 3.2.4 Two-Dimensional OPC -- 3.3 RULE-BASED PSM -- 3.3.1 Dark-Field Application -- 3.3.2 Light-Field Application -- 3.4 RULE-BASED OAI -- 3.5 SUMMARY -- 4 Fundamentals of Optimization -- 4.1 DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION -- 4.1.1 Definitions in the Optimization Problem -- 4.1.2 Classification of Optimization Problems -- 4.2 UNCONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION -- 4.2.1 Solution of Unconstrained Optimization Problem -- 4.2.2 Unconstrained Optimization Algorithms -- 4.3 SUMMARY -- 5 Computational Lithography with Coherent Illumination -- 5.1 PROBLEM FORMULATION -- 5.2 OPC OPTIMIZATION -- 5.2.1 OPC Design Algorithm -- 5.2.2 Simulations -- 5.3 TWO-PHASE PSM OPTIMIZATION -- 5.3.1 Two-Phase PSM Design Algorithm -- 5.3.2 Simulations
5.4 GENERALIZED PSM OPTIMIZATION -- 5.4.1 Generalized PSM Design Algorithm -- 5.4.2 Simulations -- 5.5 RESIST MODELING EFFECTS -- 5.6 SUMMARY -- 6 Regularization Framework -- 6.1 DISCRETIZATION PENALTY -- 6.1.1 Discretization Penalty for OPC Optimization -- 6.1.2 Discretization Penalty for Two-Phase PSM Optimization -- 6.1.3 Discretization Penalty for Generalized PSM Optimization -- 6.2 COMPLEXITY PENALTY -- 6.2.1 Total Variation Penalty -- 6.2.2 Global Wavelet Penalty -- 6.2.3 Localized Wavelet Penalty -- 6.3 SUMMARY -- 7 Computational Lithography with Partially Coherent Illumination -- 7.1 OPC OPTIMIZATION -- 7.1.1 OPC Design Algorithm Using the Fourier Series Expansion Model -- 7.1.2 Simulations Using the Fourier Series Expansion Model -- 7.1.3 OPC Design Algorithm Using the Average Coherent Approximation Model -- 7.1.4 Simulations Using the Average Coherent Approximation Model -- 7.1.5 Discussion and Comparison -- 7.2 PSM OPTIMIZATION -- 7.2.1 PSM Design Algorithm Using the Singular Value Decomposition Model -- 7.2.2 Discretization Regularization for PSM Design Algorithm -- 7.2.3 Simulations -- 7.3 SUMMARY -- 8 Other RET Optimization Techniques -- 8.1 DOUBLE-PATTERNING METHOD -- 8.2 POST-PROCESSING BASED ON 2D DCT -- 8.3 PHOTORESIST TONE REVERSING METHOD -- 8.4 SUMMARY -- 9 Source and Mask Optimization -- 9.1 LITHOGRAPHY PRELIMINARIES -- 9.2 TOPOLOGICAL CONSTRAINT -- 9.3 SOURCE-MASK OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM -- 9.4 SIMULATIONS -- 9.5 SUMMARY -- 10 Coherent Thick-Mask Optimization -- 10.1 KIRCHHOFF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS -- 10.2 BOUNDARY LAYER MODEL -- 10.2.1 Boundary Layer Model in Coherent Imaging Systems -- 10.2.2 Boundary Layer Model in Partially Coherent Imaging Systems -- 10.3 LITHOGRAPHY PRELIMINARIES -- 10.4 OPC OPTIMIZATION -- 10.4.1 Topological Constraint -- 10.4.2 OPC Optimization Algorithm Based on BL Model Under Coherent Illumination
10.4.3 Simulations -- 10.5 PSM OPTIMIZATION -- 10.5.1 Topological Constraint -- 10.5.2 PSM Optimization Algorithm Based on BL Model Under Coherent Illumination -- 10.5.3 Simulations -- 10.6 SUMMARY -- 11 Conclusions and New Directions of Computational Lithography -- 11.1 CONCLUSION -- 11.2 NEW DIRECTIONS OF COMPUTATIONAL LITHOGRAPHY -- 11.2.1 OPC Optimization for the Next-Generation Lithography Technologies -- 11.2.2 Initialization Approach for the Inverse Lithography Optimization -- 11.2.3 Double Patterning and Double Exposure Methods in Partially Coherent Imaging System -- 11.2.4 OPC and PSM Optimizations for Inverse Lithography Based on Rigorous Mask Models in Partially Coherent Imaging System -- 11.2.5 Simultaneous Source and Mask Optimization for Inverse Lithography Based on Rigorous Mask Models -- 11.2.6 Investigation of Factors Influencing the Complexity of the OPC and PSM Optimization Algorithms -- Appendix A: Formula Derivation in Chapter 5 -- Appendix B: Manhattan Geometry -- Appendix C: Formula Derivation in Chapter 6 -- Appendix D: Formula Derivation in Chapter 7 -- Appendix E: Formula Derivation in Chapter 8 -- Appendix F: Formula Derivation in Chapter 9 -- Appendix G: Formula Derivation in Chapter 10 -- Appendix H: Software Guide -- References -- Index
A Unified Summary of the Models and Optimization Methods Used in Computational Lithography Optical lithography is one of the most challenging areas of current integrated circuit manufacturing technology. The semiconductor industry is relying more on resolution enhancement techniques (RETs), since their implementation does not require significant changes in fabrication infrastructure. Computational Lithography is the first book to address the computational optimization of RETs in optical lithography, providing an in-depth discussion of optimal optical proximity correction (OPC), phase shifting mask (PSM), and off-axis illumination (OAI) RET tools that use model-based mathematical optimization approaches. The book starts with an introduction to optical lithography systems, electric magnetic field principles, and the fundamentals of optimization from a mathematical point of view. It goes on to describe in detail different types of optimization algorithms to implement RETs. Most of the algorithms developed are based on the application of the OPC, PSM, and OAI approaches and their combinations. Algorithms for coherent illumination as well as partially coherent illumination systems are described, and numerous simulations are offered to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithms. In addition, mathematical derivations of all optimization frameworks are presented. The accompanying MATLAB® software files for all the RET methods described in the book make it easy for readers to run and investigate the codes in order to understand and apply the optimization algorithms, as well as to design a set of optimal lithography masks. The codes may also be used by readers for their research and development activities in their academic or industrial organizations. An accompanying MATLAB® software guide is also included. An accompanying MATLAB® software guide
is included, and readers can download the software to use with the guide at ftp://ftp.wiley.com/public/sci_tech_med/computational_lithography. Tailored for both entry-level and experienced readers, Computational Lithography is meant for faculty, graduate students, and researchers, as well as scientists and engineers in industrial organizations whose research or career field is semiconductor IC fabrication, optical lithography, and RETs. Computational lithography draws from the rich theory of inverse problems, optics, optimization, and computational imaging; as such, the book is also directed to researchers and practitioners in these fields
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Ma, Xu Computational Lithography Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated,c2010 9780470596975
Subject Microlithography -- Mathematics.;Integrated circuits -- Design and construction -- Mathematics.;Photolithography -- Mathematics.;Semiconductors -- Etching -- Mathematics.;Resolution (Optics)
Electronic books
Alt Author Arce, Gonzalo R
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