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Author Grobe, Klaus
Title Wavelength Division Multiplexing : A Practical Engineering Guide
Imprint Somerset : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2013
©2014
book jacket
Edition 1st ed
Descript 1 online resource (430 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Series Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics Ser. ; v.1
Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics Ser
Note Wavelength Division Multiplexing: A Practical Engineering Guide -- Contents -- Acknowledgments -- 1 Introduction to WDM -- 1.1 WDM Theory -- 1.2 History of WDM -- References -- 2 Optical Fiber Effects -- 2.1 Linear Effects -- 2.1.1 Attenuation -- 2.1.1.1 Intrinsic Loss -- 2.1.1.2 Fiber Bending Loss -- 2.1.1.3 Polarization-Dependent Loss -- 2.1.2 Chromatic Dispersion -- 2.1.3 Polarization-Mode Dispersion -- 2.1.3.1 PMD and DGD -- 2.1.3.2 PMD in Recirculating Loops -- 2.1.3.3 Real-World Fiber Plant PMD Audits -- 2.2 Nonlinear Fiber Effects -- 2.2.1 Kerr Effects -- 2.2.1.1 Self-Phase Modulation -- 2.2.1.2 Cross-Phase Modulation -- 2.2.1.3 Cross-Polarization Modulation -- 2.2.1.4 Four-Wave Mixing -- 2.2.1.5 Modulation Instability -- 2.2.1.6 Nonlinear Phase Noise -- 2.2.2 Scattering Effects -- 2.2.2.1 Stimulated Raman Scattering -- 2.2.2.2 Brillouin Scattering -- References -- 3 Components and Subsystems -- 3.1 Transmitters -- 3.1.1 Laser Diodes -- 3.1.1.1 Principle of Diode Lasers -- 3.1.1.2 Fabry-P erot Laser Diodes -- 3.1.1.3 Distributed Feedback and Distributed Bragg Reflector Laser Diodes -- 3.1.1.4 Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers -- 3.1.1.5 Tunable Laser Diodes -- 3.1.2 External Modulators -- 3.1.2.1 Electroabsorption Modulators -- 3.1.2.2 Electro-Optic Modulators -- 3.1.2.3 Reflective Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers -- 3.1.3 Direct-Modulation Techniques -- 3.1.3.1 Directly Modulated Laser -- 3.1.3.2 Dispersion-Supported Transmission -- 3.1.3.3 Chirp-Managed Laser -- 3.2 Transmission Line -- 3.2.1 Single-Mode Fiber Types -- 3.2.2 Novel and Specialty Fibers -- 3.2.2.1 Few-Mode Fibers -- 3.2.2.2 Multicore Fibers -- 3.2.2.3 Polymer Optical Fibers -- 3.2.2.4 PCF and PBG Fibers -- 3.2.3 Fiber-Optic Cables -- 3.2.4 Optical Amplifiers -- 3.2.4.1 EDFAs and Other Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Amplifiers -- 3.2.4.2 Raman Amplifiers
3.2.4.3 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers -- 3.2.5 Dispersion Compensation -- 3.2.5.1 Dispersion-Compensating Fibers -- 3.2.5.2 Chirped Fiber Gratings -- 3.2.5.3 Self-Phase Modulation (Soliton Effect) -- 3.2.5.4 TODC -- 3.2.6 Passive WDM Filters and Couplers -- 3.2.6.1 Fused Couplers -- 3.2.6.2 Thin-Film Filters -- 3.2.6.3 Arrayed Waveguide Gratings -- 3.2.6.4 Fiber Bragg Gratings -- 3.2.6.5 Interleavers (Mach-Zehnder Interferometer) -- 3.2.6.6 Tunable Filters -- 3.2.6.7 Wavelength Switching Devices -- 3.2.7 ROADMs and OXCs -- 3.2.7.1 ROADM Structures -- 3.2.7.2 Multidegree WSS -- 3.2.7.3 Optical Cross-Connects -- 3.3 Receivers -- 3.3.1 Photodiodes -- 3.3.1.1 PIN Photodiodes -- 3.3.1.2 Avalanche Photodiodes -- 3.3.2 Electronic Amplifiers -- 3.3.2.1 TIA -- 3.3.2.2 Limiting Amplifier -- 3.3.3 Pluggable Transceivers for WDM -- 3.4 Digital Electronics -- 3.4.1 SERDES -- 3.4.1.1 Serializer -- 3.4.1.2 Deserializer -- 3.4.2 Forward Error Correction -- 3.4.2.1 FEC Basics -- 3.4.2.2 Cyclic Codes -- 3.4.2.3 Code Concatenation and Iterative Decoding -- 3.4.3 Electronic Distortion Compensation -- References -- 4 Nonfiber-Related Effects -- 4.1 Linear Cross Talk -- 4.2 Noise in Optical Transmission Systems -- 4.2.1 Noise in Optical Receivers -- 4.2.2 Receiver Sensitivities -- 4.2.3 Noise Figures and OSNR in Optical Amplifier Chains -- References -- 5 Modulation Formats For WDM -- 5.1 Basic Modulation -- 5.2 Pulse Shaping -- 5.3 Modulation Formats -- 5.3.1 Amplitude Modulation -- 5.3.1.1 On-Off Keying (OOK) -- 5.3.1.2 Detailed Derivation of OSNR Tolerance of Directly Detected OOK -- 5.3.1.3 Multilevel Amplitude Modulation -- 5.3.2 Phase Modulation -- 5.3.2.1 Phase-Shift Keying -- 5.3.2.2 DPSK with Direct Detection -- 5.3.2.3 (D)XPSK -- 5.3.3 QAM-Combined Amplitude and Phase Modulation -- 5.3.4 Optical Noise Tolerance of Multilevel Modulation Formats
5.3.5 Partial Response Signaling -- 5.3.5.1 Optical Duobinary -- 5.3.5.2 Higher Order and Quadrature Partial Response -- 5.3.6 Frequency-Shift Keying -- 5.3.7 Polarization Modulation and Interleaving -- 5.4 Coherent Intradyne Dual-Polarization QAM Detection -- 5.5 Optical OFDM -- 5.6 Comparison of Modulation Formats -- References -- 6 System Realization -- 6.1 Access Networks -- 6.1.1 CWDM Access and Backhaul -- 6.1.2 Passive WDM -- 6.1.3 PONs and Optical Access Networks -- 6.1.4 WDM-PON -- 6.1.4.1 WDM-PON with Tunable Lasers and Laser Arrays -- 6.1.4.2 WDM-PON with Seeded Reflective Transmitters -- 6.1.4.3 Coherent UDWDM-PON -- 6.1.5 WDM-Based PON Reach Analysis -- 6.1.6 WDM-PON Deployment Reference: KT -- 6.2 Corporate Networks (Storage Reach Extensions) -- 6.2.1 Disk Mirroring -- 6.2.2 Mainframe Coupling/Server Consolidation -- 6.2.3 Low-Latency WDM Transport -- 6.3 WDM Transport Encryption -- 6.4 Metro and Regional Networks -- 6.4.1 DWDM Metro/Regional Ring Networks -- 6.4.2 Capacity in WDM Ring Networks -- 6.4.3 Wavelength Blocking in WDM Rings -- 6.5 Long-Haul and Ultralong-Haul Systems -- 6.5.1 Optical Design Challenge -- 6.5.2 Engineering Models -- 6.5.2.1 Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio Degradation -- 6.5.2.2 Spectral Ripple and Tilt -- 6.5.2.3 Self-Phase Modulation and Group Velocity Dispersion -- 6.5.2.4 Cross-Phase Modulation -- 6.5.2.5 Four-Wave Mixing -- 6.5.2.6 Stimulated Raman Scattering -- 6.5.3 Link-Based Design Approach -- 6.5.3.1 Optical Power Management -- 6.5.3.2 Chromatic Dispersion Management -- 6.5.4 Optical-Layer Design Workflow -- 6.5.5 Mixed 10 Gb/s/100 Gb/s Design -- 6.5.6 Regional Differences -- 6.5.7 Terrestrial Long-Haul Deployment Example: PIONIER -- 6.5.8 Submarine Systems -- 6.5.9 Ultralong-Haul Deployment Example: TAT-14 -- 6.6 Future Network Configurations and Convergence -- 6.6.1 Delayering of Metro Networks
6.6.2 Energy Efficiency of WDM -- References -- 7 WDM Network Management -- 7.1 Layered Network -- 7.2 Management Approaches -- 7.3 Basic EMS, NMS, and OSS Functionality -- 7.4 Data Communications Network -- 7.5 Management System Interfaces -- 7.6 Control Plane -- 7.6.1 Control Plane Interfaces -- 7.6.2 Migration Scenarios -- 7.6.3 GMPLS Protocols -- 7.6.4 Control Plane Mechanisms -- 7.6.4.1 Automated Network Discovery -- 7.6.4.2 Path Computation -- 7.6.4.3 Connection Control -- 7.6.4.4 Resource Management -- 7.6.4.5 Entity Management -- 7.6.4.6 Call Control -- References -- 8 Selected Network Issues -- 8.1 Overview of the Optical Transport Network -- 8.1.1 OTN Layers -- 8.1.2 OTN Mapping and Multiplexing -- 8.1.3 OTN Operations, Administration, and Monitoring Aspects -- 8.2 Monitoring in WDM Systems -- 8.2.1 Impairments in Transparent Optical Networks -- 8.2.2 Measurements of the Quality of Optical Signals -- 8.2.3 Monitoring Techniques -- 8.2.3.1 Monitoring Requirements -- 8.2.3.2 CD Monitoring -- 8.2.3.3 PMD Monitoring -- 8.2.3.4 OSNR Monitoring -- 8.2.3.5 Optical Transient Monitoring (OTM) -- 8.2.4 Optical Performance Monitoring -- 8.2.4.1 BER Monitoring -- 8.2.4.2 Q-Factor Monitoring -- 8.2.5 Fiber Monitoring -- 8.3 Flexible WDM Networks -- 8.4 Protection and Restoration -- 8.4.1 Dedicated Versus Shared Protection Versus Restoration -- 8.4.2 WDM Protection -- 8.4.3 WDM-PON Protection -- 8.4.4 Restoration -- References -- 9 Standards Relevant for WDM -- 9.1 ITU-T Recommendations -- 9.2 Others -- 9.2.1 FSAN (NG-PON2) -- 9.2.2 OIF -- 9.2.3 IEEE-SA -- 9.2.4 IETF -- 9.2.5 IEC -- 9.2.6 Others (INCITS T.11 and IBTA) -- 10 Practical Approximations and Tips -- 10.1 Conversion Between Bit Error Rate and Equivalent Q-Factor -- 10.2 Properties of a PRBS Signal -- 10.3 Chromatic Dispersion Values and Propagation Constants -- References -- Index
In this book, Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is approached from a strictly practical and application-oriented point of view. Based on the characteristics and constraints of modern fiber-optic components, transport systems and fibers, the text provides relevant rules of thumb and practical hints for technology selection, WDM system and link dimensioning, and also for network-related aspects such as wavelength assignment and resilience mechanisms. Actual 10/40 Gb/s WDM systems are considered, and a preview of the upcoming 100 Gb/s systems and technologies for even higher bit rates is given as well. Key features: Considers WDM from ULH backbone (big picture view) down to PON access (micro view). Includes all major telecom and datacom applications. Provides the relevant background for state-of-the-art and next-gen systems. Offers practical guidelines for system / link engineering
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Grobe, Klaus Wavelength Division Multiplexing : A Practical Engineering Guide Somerset : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated,c2013 9780470623022
Subject Optical communications.;Wavelength division multiplexing
Electronic books
Alt Author Eiselt, Michael
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