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Author Anderson, Kym
Title Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Africa
Imprint Herndon : World Bank Publications, 2009
©2009
book jacket
Descript 1 online resource (718 pages)
text txt rdacontent
computer c rdamedia
online resource cr rdacarrier
Note Cover -- Title Page -- Contents -- Dedication -- Foreword -- Acknowledgments -- Contributors -- Abbreviations -- PART 1 Introduction -- CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Summary -- Introduction -- Growth and Structural Changes in Africa -- Methodology for Measuring Rates of Assistance and Taxation -- Estimates of Policy-Induced Distortions in Africa -- Nominal rates of assistance to agriculture -- Assistance to nonfarm sectors and relative rates of assistance -- Comparisons across regions and countries -- Consumer tax equivalents of agricultural policies -- The link between antifarm and antitrade policies -- International spillovers and multilateral agreements -- Summary: What have we learned? -- African governments have removed much of their earlier antifarm and antitrade policy biases -- Substantial distortions remain and still impose a large tax burden on Africa's poor -- African farmers have become less taxed in part because of the changing trade orientation of African agriculture -- Trade restrictions continue to be Africa's most important instruments of agricultural intervention -- Differences in NRAs and RRAs across commodities and countries are still substantial -- Implications for the Future -- Notes -- References -- PART 2 North Africa -- CHAPTER 2 Arab Republic of Egypt -- Introduction -- Growth and Structural Change in the Egyptian Economy, 1955 to 2005 -- Policy Evolution -- Measures of Distortions to Agricultural Incentives, 1955-2005 -- Nominal rates of assistance and consumer tax equivalents -- Relative rate of assistance -- Evolution of Specific Policy Choices and Their Impacts -- Overview: 1964-1986 -- Overview: 1987-2005 -- Crop-specific and other farm policies -- Cotton -- Rice -- Maize -- Sugar -- Wheat -- Livestock -- Input policies -- Food consumer policy -- Impact on Rural Incomes -- What about Future Policies? -- Notes
References -- PART 3 Southern Africa -- CHAPTER 3 Madagascar -- Introduction -- Policy Evolutions before the 1960s -- Growth and Structural Changes since the 1960s -- The transition period of the 1960s and the socialist experiments of the 1970s -- The gradual adoption of liberalization since the 1980s -- Trade policy -- Evolution of rural poverty since the 1960s -- Direct and Indirect Distortions to Agricultural Incentives -- Food crops -- Rice -- Cassava -- Maize and yams (sweet potatoes) -- Export crops -- Industrial crops: sugarcane -- The nonagricultural sector -- Conclusions and Prospects for Further Policy Reform -- Notes -- References -- CHAPTER 4 Mozambique -- Introduction -- The Agricultural Sector in Mozambique's Economy -- Before independence -- 1975-1986 -- 1987-1994 -- 1994-today -- Policy Interventions in Agriculture -- General policies -- Fixed and minimum prices -- Commercialization -- Trade taxes -- Taxes on and subsidies to production -- Extension services -- Input policies -- Product-specific interventions -- Summary of main interventions -- Measuring Agricultural Policy Distortions -- Products selected -- Data issues -- Results -- Evolution of NRAs by product -- Maize -- Beans -- Rice -- Tobacco -- Cotton -- Cashew -- Sugar -- Aggregate NRAs and the RRA -- Conclusions and Prospects for Further Policy Reform -- Notes -- References -- CHAPTER 5 South Africa -- Introduction -- Economic Performance of South African Agriculture since 1955 -- Agricultural Policy -- Policies to 1980 -- The maize scheme -- The red meat marketing scheme -- The deciduous fruit scheme -- A broadening of the policy focus -- Policies during the 1980s -- Policies since the 1990s -- Marketing policy -- Land reform -- Institutional restructuring in the public sector -- Water law reform -- Labor market policy -- Trade policy -- State support to agriculture
Direct and Indirect Distortions Facing Producers and Consumers -- Nominal rates of assistance to agriculture -- Relative rates of assistance -- Comparison with OECD's estimates -- Policy Reform Needed to Deal with Existing Distortions -- Conclusions -- Notes -- References -- CHAPTER 6 Zambia -- Introduction -- Agricultural Policy in the Colonial Period -- Measurement of Agricultural Distortions, 1955-2004 -- The Patterns of Distortions, 1955-2005 -- NRAs by commodity -- Assistance patterns for tradable products and for agriculture as a whole -- Consumer tax equivalent patterns -- Policies behind the Distortions: 1964-1991 -- Background -- Agricultural and food policies -- Macroeconomic and exchange rate policy -- Policies behind the Distortions: The Period since 1992 -- Prospects for Further Reform -- Notes -- References -- CHAPTER 7 Zimbabwe -- Introduction -- Agricultural Policy and Distortions before 1955 -- Measuring the Extent of Price Distortions, 1955-2004 -- Overall NRA pattern -- NRAs by commodity -- NRA for tradables and for agriculture as a whole -- Policies behind the Distortions -- 1955-1979 -- 1980-1990 -- 1991-1999 -- After 2000 -- Prospects for Reform -- Notes -- References -- PART 4 Eastern Africa -- CHAPTER 8 Ethiopia -- Introduction -- Historical Overview of Politics and Economic Policies -- Economic Growth, Structural Changes, and Poverty -- Measuring Distortions to Agricultural Incentives -- Data and product coverage -- NRA results for agriculture -- RRA results -- Policies behind Agricultural Disincentives -- Exchange rate policies -- Agricultural taxation policies -- Agricultural policies on output prices -- Farm input market policies -- Summary and Implications -- Notes -- References -- CHAPTER 9 Kenya -- Introduction -- Growth and Structural Changes since 1955 -- Agricultural Policy in the Colonial Period, 1895-1963
Direct and Indirect Distortions to Agricultural Incentives -- Distortions by commodity -- Coffee and tea -- Wheat and maize -- Sugar -- Fruits and vegetables -- Policies behind the Distortions since 1960 -- Fiscal and trade policy -- Regulation, red tape, and rent seeking -- Prospects -- Notes -- References -- CHAPTER 10 Sudan -- Introduction -- Growth and Structural Changes since 1955 -- Policy Evolution and the Economy -- The colonial period -- The 1956-70 period -- The 1970s and 1980s -- The 1986-89 period -- National Economic Salvation Program policies, 1990-93 -- Reform policies since 1993 -- Estimates of the Changing Extent of Distortions -- Nominal rates of assistance -- The Evolution of Policy Choices -- Import-competing products -- Exportable cereals -- Exportable oilseeds and oils -- Exportable cotton -- Exportable gum arabic -- Exportable livestock -- Prospects for National Policy Reform -- Notes -- References -- CHAPTER 11 Tanzania -- Introduction -- Growth and Structural Changes -- A Brief History of Agricultural Policy -- 1960-75: The cooperative system -- 1976-80: The parastatal marketing system -- 1985-2000: Market transition -- Post-2000 policy issues -- Trade policy reforms -- Measuring Distortions to Agricultural Incentives -- Results -- Prospects and Implications -- Notes -- References -- CHAPTER 12 Uganda -- Introduction -- Growth and Structural Changes in the Economy -- Growth performance -- Structural changes in the economy -- Characteristics and performance of the agricultural sector -- Evolution of Policy -- Measurement of Agricultural Policy Distortions -- Product coverage -- Marketing costs of the state marketing boards -- Treatment of foreign exchange distortions -- Treatment of input distortions -- Trends in Agricultural Distortions in Uganda -- Coffee -- Cotton -- Other farm products
Aggregate NRA for the agricultural sector -- Nonagricultural NRAs -- Conclusions -- Notes -- References -- PART 5 Western Africa -- CHAPTER 13 Cameroon -- Introduction -- Agriculture's Role in the Economy -- Main Agricultural Policy Incentives, Interventions, and Reforms -- Colonial agricultural policies and institutions -- The 1960s -- The 1970s -- The 1980s -- Continuing liberalization since the late 1980s -- Growth Performance and Agricultural Output -- Distortions to Agricultural Incentives -- Data sources and assumptions -- Results -- Prospects for Continued Agricultural Policy Reforms -- Notes -- References -- CHAPTER 14 Côte d'Ivoire -- Introduction -- Economic and Trade Performance -- Agriculture's Role in the Economy -- History of Agricultural Policy Incentives, Interventions, and Reforms -- Colonial heritage -- Success following independence, 1961-79 -- Recession and structural adjustment, 1980-93 -- Devaluation and privatization, 1994-98 -- Civil conflict, 1999-2005 -- Agricultural Policies, Output, and Trade -- Cocoa -- Coffee -- Cotton -- Cereals -- Distortions to Agricultural Incentives -- Conclusions -- Notes -- References -- CHAPTER 15 Ghana -- Introduction -- Economic Growth and Structural Changes -- Before independence in 1957 -- Postindependence, 1957-83 -- Reform and adjustment, 1983-92 -- 1992-2004 -- Economic performance -- Poverty -- Agricultural Policies in Ghana -- Cocoa policy -- Measuring Distortions to Agricultural Incentives -- Market deficiencies affecting the agricultural sector -- The determinants of policy changes -- Prospects and Policy Options -- Notes -- References -- CHAPTER 16 Nigeria -- Introduction -- Economic Performance over Time -- Policies before Independence -- Incentives and Disincentives to Agriculture -- Methodology and data to measure agricultural distortions -- NRA patterns -- RRA trends
Factors Driving Policy Developments
Comprehensive empirical studies of the disarray in world agricultural markets appeared approximately 20 years ago. Since then, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has provided estimates each year of market distortions in high-income countries, but there have been no comparable estimates for the world's developing countries. This volume is the third in a series that not only fills that void for recent years but extends the estimates in a consistent and comparable way back in time's and provides analytical narratives for scores of countries that shed light on the evolving nature and extent of policy interventions over the past half-century. This title provides an overview of the evolution of distortions to agricultural incentives caused by price and trade policies in the Arab Republic of Egypt plus 20 countries that account for about of 90 percent of Sub-Saharan Africa's population, farm households, agricultural output, and overall GDP. Sectoral, trade, and exchange rate policies in the region have changed greatly since the 1950s, and there have been substantial reforms since the 1980s. Nonetheless, numerous price distortions in this region remain, others have been added in recent years, and there has also been some backsliding, such as in Zimbabwe. The new empirical indicators in these country studies provide a strong evidence based foundation for assessing the successes and failures of the past and for evaluating policy options for the years ahead
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2020. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries
Link Print version: Anderson, Kym Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Africa Herndon : World Bank Publications,c2009 9780821376522
Subject Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Africa.;Agriculture and state -- Africa.;Agricultural subsidies -- Africa.;Africa -- Economic policy
Electronic books
Alt Author Masters, William A
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